INCOLOY 800H/HT (INCOLOY 800H/HT) is an austenitic alloy widely used in high-temperature bearing structures. The high strength of 800H/HT is due to the addition of carbon, aluminum, and titanium and the annealing at a minimum [SCALE STEEL]temperature of 1149 ° C to achieve grain size ASTM5 or coarter.
Introduction for INCOLOY 800H/HT
For 800 H/HT under 787 ° C, 82(ER NicR-3) wire is used for welding.R A 330-04(N08334) wire has A matching coefficient of thermal expansion and higher strength.For maximum mechanical strength, use wire 617(ErNICrcomo-1) or wire 117(EnICRcomo-1).
In order to avoid grain boundary cracking caused by possible [SCALE STEEL]stress relaxation of 800H/HT welded parts above 538 ° C, post-weld heat treatment at 899 ° C is required. The heat preservation time shall be maintained for one hour (at least half an hour / 25mm thickness) per 25mm thickness according to the material thickness, followed by air cooling.
ASME: SB-409, SB-408, SB-407 Code Case 1325. ASME: SB-409, SB-408, SB-407
Chemical Composition for INCOLOY 800H/HT %
Cr Ni Mn Si Al Ti Al+Ti C Cu P S Fe
MIN 19 30 -- -- 0.15 0.15 0.85 0.06 -- -- -- 39.5
MAX 23 35 1.5 1 0.6 0.6 1.2 0.1 0.75 0.045 0.015 --
Material features high ASME VIII design allowable stress value (allowable temperature up to 1650 ° F) good oxidation resistance [SCALE STEEL]at high temperatures (up to 1900 ° F) resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking the main application of ethylene cracking furnace quench boiler hydrogen manufacturing conversion furnace a furnace fixation of trachea, pigtail tube inside the gasifier pieces of electric heating elements the physical properties of casing density: 0.287 lb/in3
MELTING POING RANGE: 2475- 2525°F
TEM, °F 70 1400 1600 1800
THERMAL EXPANSIVITY*, in/in°F x 10-6 -- 9.9 10.2 --
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, 6.7 13.8 15.1 17.8
Btu · ft/ft2 · hr · °F
ELASTICITY MODULUS, 28.5 21.1 19.2 --
psi x 10 6
TEM, °F 70 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
TENSILE STRENGTH, ksi 77 63.5 55.7 32.3 18.6 10.2
YIELD STRENGTH, ksi 29 16.5 14.8 14.4 11.6 8.9
ELONGATION, % 52 51 50 78 120 120
TYPICAL CREEP FRACTURE PROPERTIES
TEM, °F 1400 1600 1800
MIN CREEP RATE 0.0001%/Hour, ksi 6 3.6 1.05
10000小时断裂强度, ksi 7.3 3.5 1.2
PHYSICAL PROPERTY FOR Incoloy 800H:
DENSITY 8.0 g/cm3
MELTING POINT 1350-1400 ℃
800H Alloy Has The Following Characteristics:
1. Excellent corrosion resistance in[SCALE STEEL] water-based media with extremely high temperature up to 500℃
2. Excellent resistance to stress corrosion
3. Good processability
The Metallographic Structure of Incoloy 800H:
800H is a face-centered cubic lattice structure.The extremely low carbon content and the increased Ti:C ratio increase the structural stability and maximum resistance to sensitization and intercrystalline corrosion.The low temperature annealing at about 950℃ ensures the fine crystal structure.
Incoloy 800H Corrosion Resistance:
800H corrosion resistance of many corrosive [SCALE STEEL]media.Its high nickel content makes it have good resistance to stress corrosion cracking under water corrosion conditions.The high chromium content makes it more resistant to spot corrosion and crack corrosion cracking.The alloy has good corrosion resistance to nitric acid and organic acid, but limited corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.In addition to the possibility of spot corrosion in halides, it has good corrosion resistance in oxidizing and non-oxidizing salts.It is also very resistant to corrosion in water, steam and a mixture of steam, air and carbon dioxide.
1. Nitric acid condenser -- resistant to nitric acid corrosion
2. Steam heating tubes -- excellent mechanical properties
3. Heating element tubes -- excellent [SCALE STEEL]mechanical properties
For applications up to 500℃, the alloy is supplied in annealed state.Typical creep fracture properties
Inconel 625 is the grade of an alloy with a density of 8.4 g/cm3 and a melting point of 1290-1350℃. It has excellent corrosion resistance [SCALE STEEL]to inorganic acid and various corrosive media in oxidation and reduction environments.
Inconel 625 alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in many media.It has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, crevices corrosion, intergranular corrosion and erosion in chloride media.
GB/T UNS NB/T47047 JIS W.Nr
GH3625 N06625 NS3306 NCF625 2.4856
Chemical Composition for Inconel 625 Alloy:
Alloy % 镍 Ni 铬 Cr 钼 Mo 铌 Nb 铁 Fe 铝 Al 钛 Ti 碳 C 锰 Mn 硅 Si 钴 Co 磷 P 硫 S
Inconel 625 Min Rest 20 8 3.15
Max 23 10 4.15 5 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.5 1 0.015 0.015
Mechanical Property for Inconel 625 Alloy
Alloy Status Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elongation Hardness
Rm N/mm RP0.2 N/mm A5 % HB
Solid Solution 827 414 30 ≤220
Features for Inconel 625 Alloy:
1. Excellent corrosion resistance to a variety of corrosive media in oxidizing and reducing environments
2. Excellent resistance to spot and crevice corrosion without stress corrosion cracking due to chloride
3. Excellent resistance to inorganic acids, such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid and [SCALE STEEL]hydrochloric acid mixture, etc
4. Excellent corrosion resistance to various inorganic acid mixed solutions
5. When the temperature reaches 40℃, it shows good corrosion resistance in various concentrations of hydrochloric acid solution
6. Good machining and weldability, no post-welding cracking sensitivity
7. Manufacturing certification for pressure vessels with wall temperature of -196 ~ 450℃
8. Certified by the NACE Standards of the American Society of Corrosion Engineers (MR-01-75) as level VII, the highest standard for use in acidic gas environments
Metallographic Structure of Inconel 625
625 is a face-centered cubic lattice structure.Carbon particles and unstable quaternary phase are precipitated and converted into stable Ni3(Nb,Ti) rhombic lattice phase when kept warm for a long enough time at about 650℃.After solution [SCALE STEEL]strengthening, the molybdenum and niobium components in the ni-Cr matrix will improve the mechanical properties of the material, but the plasticity will be reduced.
Corrosion Resistance of Inconel 625:
625 alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in many media.It has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, crevices corrosion, intergranular corrosion and erosion in chloride media.It has good resistance to inorganic acid, such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, etc., and also has alkali resistance and organic acid corrosion in oxidation and reduction environment.Effective resistance to chloride ion [SCALE STEEL]reducing stress corrosion cracking.It produces little corrosion in seawater and industrial gas environments and is highly resistant to seawater and salt solutions, as well as at high temperatures.No sensitivity during welding.Resistant to carbonation and oxidation in static or circulating environments, and resistant to chlorine-containing gases.
Inconel 690 is a kind of alloy mainly used for steam generator heat pipe material in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. It is the [SCALE STEEL]core technology of steam generator.
Chemical Composition for Inconel 690 Alloy
Ni Cr Fe C Al Ti Mn Si Cu P S
Rest 30.39 8.88 0.023 0.22 0.26 0.23 0.07 0.02 0.006 0.002
Physical& Mechanical Property
Density Melting Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Yield strength Tensile strength Elongation
密度 熔点 杨氏模量 泊松比 屈服强度 抗拉强度 伸长率
8.19g/cm 1343-1377℃ 211GPa 0.289 350MPa 700MPa 45%
Special Properties for Inconel 690 Alloy
The Inconel 690 alloy has excellent intercrystal corrosion resistance and intercrystal stress corrosion cracking resistance. It is mainly [SCALE STEEL]used as the material of steam generator heat transfer pipe for PWR nuclear power plant.The heat transfer pipe material for PWR nuclear power plant steam generator has undergone a development process, including 304 austenitic stainless steel, 600 alloy, 800 alloy and 690 alloy.Studies on corrosion failure of 600 alloys in service show that intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking are the main problems.As the material of steam generator heat pipe in PWR nuclear power plant, no damage has been reported since the 690 alloy was put into use in 1990s.
Main applications for Inconel 690 Alloy
Of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants in China, only Qinshan Phase I uses 800 alloy, and The Qinshan Phase II, Daya Bay and [SCALE STEEL]Lingao nuclear power plants all use 690 alloy as the steam generator heat transfer pipe material.Most of the pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants under construction and planning also adopt 690 alloy as the material of steam generator heat transfer pipe.
Alloy 20 is an iron and nickel based Alloy developed to resist sulfuric acid corrosion.Its sulfuric acid corrosion resistance is excellent;Resistance to phosphoric acid, nitric acid and chloride environments, chloride stress corrosion, spot corrosion and crack corrosion is also strong.It is widely used in chemistry, food, medicine, power generation and plastics industries.
Alloy 20 (1) is an iron-based austenitic [SCALE STEEL]Alloy developed to resist sulfuric acid corrosion.It has excellent performance against sulfuric acid corrosion.It has strong resistance to stress corrosion, point corrosion and crack corrosion in the environment of phosphoric acid, nitric acid and chloride.Therefore, alloy 20 has the name of anti-corrosion alloy;It has a wide range of applications, such as: chemistry, food, medicine, electricity production and the plastics industry will use it.Resistance to point corrosion and chloride corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, etc., often choose alloy 20.
The Chemical Composition Of Alloy 20 Is:
Iron 31-44% (Balanced)
2% Of Manganese
Niobium (8.0xc),1% Maximum
In 1900, the United States produced 37 percent of the world's steel.With postwar industrial development in Asia, nearly 40% at the turn of the 21st century, 36% of no. 20 alloy products in Europe (including the former Soviet Union) and 14.5% in North America.Alloy 20 consumption increases when the economy grows, [SCALE STEEL]the government invests in infrastructure and transportation, and builds new factories and houses.With the recession and steel production swimming, such investment is faltering.
Previously, No. 20 Alloy products were often associated with images of powerful working life in captive townships.All this has changed dramatically.A modern steel mill uses very few people.In South Korea, posco employs 10,000 people, to 280,000 tonnes.As a rule of thumb, you can put the direct employment potential at 10 million tons.This could be the following.However, the number 20 alloy products foundational industry, [SCALE STEEL]number 20 alloy generation upstream and downstream of the facility has grown substantially.
Performance Characteristics for Alloy 20:
(1) There is no upper limit of silicon content in the steel DianZhaLu used for smelting.
(2) In order to improve the cutting of steel, the buyer's requirements can be sulfur (small) 0.60%?0.15%.
(3) Residual element (mass fraction) in the specified steel: 0.30% or Ni;Copper 0.25 percent or less,
(4) According to the supply and demand agreement W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel, adjust the content of vanadium (V) 1.60%?2.20%.
(5) is allowed for (Mo) with a high tungsten and molybdenum content greater than 1.00%.The relationship between steel tungsten and molybdenum is: when molybdenum exceeds 0.30%, the tungsten content is correspondingly reduced. [SCALE STEEL]Molybdenum exceeds Mo 0.30%, and each 1% can be replaced by 2%. If this is the case, add "mozi" after this steel number.
F62, Incoloy25-6HN Contains Six Mo Super Austenitic Stainless Steels:
AL-6XN (N08367) super austenitic stainless steel is a kind of excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion of chlorine ion capacity of super austenitic stainless steel, as a kind of good cost performance of corrosion-resistant alloy, its comprehensive corrosion resistant ability than 316 l had the very big spanning, at the same time [SCALE STEEL]relative to the C - 276 and other corrosion resistance of nickel base alloy close to its corrosion resistance ability, cost advantage is obvious.Because the visible part of nitrogen is added in the alloy, so that the AL-6XN material relative to conventional austenitic stainless steel (e.g., 304316317, etc.) have a higher tensile strength, while maintaining the excellent material toughness and impact strength, ASME standards specified in the allowable stress values, AL-6XN 40% higher than 316 l, compared to nearly double higher than that of copper - nickel alloy.Physical and mechanical properties of super Austenitic stainless steel (N08367,1.4501) : 1. Density of al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) stainless steel: 8.24g/cm3.2. Tensile strength of al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) stainless steel: B ≥744Mpa.3. Yield strength of al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) stainless steel: B ≥365Mpa.4. Elongation of al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) stainless steel: ≥47%.
Carbon (C):0.02 or Less
Manganese (Mn):2.00 or Less
Nickel (Ni):23.5 ~ 25.5,
Silicon (Si):1.0 or Less
Phosphorus (P):0.04 or Less
Sulfur (S):0.01 or Less
Chromium (Cr):20.0 ~ 22.0
Copper (Cu) :0.75 or Less
Molybdenum (Mo) 6.0 ~ 7.0
Nitrogen (N):0.18 ~ 0.25
Al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) super Austenitic stainless steel material characteristics: Al-6XN (N08367,1.4501) stainless steel than [SCALE STEEL]the standard 300 series alloy, chloride ion has a higher resistance to pitting corrosion, crack corrosion and pressure crack corrosion, in stainless steel Cr, Mo, Ni, C has corrosion resistance to different media.Cr is the representative of corrosion resistance in natural and oxidized environment. The increase of Cr, Mo and Ni content increases the corrosion resistance to pitting; Nickel provides austenite structure; nickel and molybdenum increase the corrosion resistance to chlorine ions in pressure crevices and reduce the corrosion resistance to environment.Al-6xn stainless steel with high nickel (24%) and molybdenum (6.3%) has better resistance to pressure crevices.Molybdenum is resistant to chloride ion pitting and nickel further enhances pitting resistance and provides a higher strength than 300 austenitic stainless steels, so it is often used in thinner parts of the equipment.High levels of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel in al-6xN stainless steel also provide corrosion resistance in forming and welding of the stainless steel.
In addition, Al-6XN stainless steel also has the following characteristics: 1. Excellent corrosion resistance to pitting and crevices under the environment of chloride ion medium.2. Excellent resistance to stress corrosion under the medium of sodium chloride solution.3. High strength and good toughness.Iv. Al-6xn (N08367,1.4501) Super Austenitic stainless steel main applications: High chromium, molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen make AL-6XN have good resistance to chloride ion pitting and crevices corrosion, which makes AL-6XN applied in many environments: flue gas desulfurization spray tower;Reverse osmosis [SCALE STEEL]seawater desalination equipment and pumps;Chemical reaction kettle and pipeline;Heat exchangers using seawater media;Crude oil splitting distillation column and metal packing;Offshore oil and gas production equipment;Scrubber drums, rollers, grooves, pipes, etc. in pulp bleaching systems.1. Variety classification: It can produce al-6XN seamless pipe, al-6XN steel plate, al-6XN round steel, Al-6XN forgings, al-6XN flange, Al-6Xn ring, al-6XN welded pipe, al-6XN steel strip, al-6XN wire and al-6XN supporting welding materials of various specifications.2. Delivery status: seamless tube: solid solution + acid white, length can be defined;Plate: solid solution, pickling, cutting edge;Welded pipe: solid solution acid white +RT% flaw detection, forgings: anneal + car light;The bar is forged and rolled, its surface polished or polished;The strip is delivered by cold rolling, soft solid solution and deoxidized skin.Silk[SCALE STEEL] material is delivered in the form of solid solution pickling dish or straight strip, solid solution straight strip and fine polished state.
F44/254SMO is an austenitic stainless steel with 6% molybdenum steels.
F44’s Welding Material:
Ernicrmo-3 wire, ENICRMO-3 electrode
F44 Main Ingredients:
Carbon (C) 0.02 or less, manganese (Mn) of 1.00 or less, 17.5 ~ bai18.5 nickel (Ni), silicon (Si) of 0.8 or less phosphorus (P) of 0.03 or less, [SCALE STEEL]sulfur (S) of 0.01 or less, chromium (Cr) 19.5 ~ 20.5, copper (Cu) 0.5 ~ 1.0, molybdenum (Mo) 6.0 ~ 6.5
Because of its high molybdenum content, it has very high corrosion resistance to spot and crevices.This grade of stainless steel is developed for use in halogenated environments such as sea water.The 254SMO also has good resistance to uniform corrosion.Especially in the acid containing halide, the steel is superior to [SCALE STEEL]ordinary stainless steel.Its C contains <0.03%, so called pure austenitic stainless steel.(<0.01% also known as super austenitic stainless steel).Super stainless steel is a special stainless steel, first of all in the chemical composition of the different from ordinary stainless steel, is to contain high nickel, high chromium, high molybdenum of a high alloy stainless steel.The famous steel is 254SMo containing 6%Mo. This kind of steel has very good local corrosion resistance. It has good pitting resistance (PI≥40) and good stress corrosion resistance under the conditions of seawater, inflation, crevice and low speed erosion, and is a substitute material for Ni base alloy and titanium alloy.Secondly, in terms of high temperature or corrosion resistance, it has better high temperature or corrosion resistance, and 304 stainless steel cannot be replaced.In addition, from the classification of stainless steel, special stainless steel metallographic structure is a stable austenitic metallographic structure.
Because this special stainless steel is a kind of high alloy material, so in the manufacturing process is quite complex, generally people can only rely on the traditional process to make this special stainless steel, such as perfusion, [SCALE STEEL]forging, rolling and so on.
F44 Stainless’ Equivalent Grades/ Materials:
UNS S31254, DIN/EN 1.4547, 254SMO, F44, 00Cr20Ni18Mo6CuN
ASTM A240, ASME SA-240, B312/B269, A276
Physical Properties for F44 Stainless:
Density: 8.24g/cm3, melting point: 1320-1390 ℃, magnetism: none
F44 Mechanical Properties:
Tensile strength: B ≥650Mpa, yield strength: B ≥310Mpa: elongation: ≥40%, hardness: 182-223 (HB)
F44’s Corrosion Property:
It is a kind of high corrosion resistant super austenitic stainless steel. It is developed for halide and acid environment. It is widely used in high concentration chloride ion medium, sea water and other harsh working conditions.254SMO is far superior to other stainless steels and in some cases comparable to Hastelloy alloys and titanium[SCALE STEEL] in various industrial applications of acidic media, especially in halide acids.With low carbon content and high molybdenum content, it has good corrosion resistance to point and crack and excellent corrosion resistance to intercrystal. It is a kind of cost-effective stainless steel, which is widely used in chemical industry, desulfurization and environmental protection fields at home and abroad.
Application Scope for F44 Stainless:
Ocean: Marine Environment Marine Structures, Sea Water Desalination, Sea Water Aquaculture, Sea Water Heat Exchange, etc.
The XM-19 is an austenitic stainless steel.Its corrosion resistance and strength are unmatched by commercial materials at the same price.Nitronic50 has better corrosion resistance than 316,316L, 317L, and 317L, and yields up to twice the strength of these grades at room temperature.The yield strength of the high strength Nitronic50 [SCALE STEEL](HS) can be up to 3-4 times that of 316 stainless steel.In addition, Nictronic50 has good mechanical properties in both heating and low temperature environments.Unlike most austenitic stainless steels, Nitronic50 does not magnetize when cold worked or cooled to sub-zero temperatures.
Chemical Composition for XM-19:
碳 C：≤0.06,硅 Si：≤1.0,锰 Mn：4-6,磷 P：≤0.045,硫 S：≤0.03,铬 Cr：20.5-23.5,镍 Ni：11.5-13.5,钼Mo：1.5-3.0,氮 N：0.2-0.4,[SCALE STEEL]cb：0.1-0.3,钒V：0.1-0.3
Mechanical Property for XM-19:
Density :7.8 g/cm3
Melting Point :1415-1450 ℃
Minimum Mechanical Properties of XM-19 Alloys At Room Temperature:
Tensile Strength Rm N/mm2
Yield Strength RP0.2n /mm2
Brinell hardness HB
Solid Melting State 690 380 35 ≤241
Corrosion Resistance of XM-19:
UNS S20910 / XM-19 stainless steel has excellent general corrosion resistance and is superior in many respects to 316/316L and 317/317L.
Annealing conditions at 1950°F (1066°C) provide sufficient corrosion resistance for many applications while providing high [SCALE STEEL]strength.When using materials in welded or highly corrosive medium, the annealing condition of 2050°F (1121°C) shall be selected.Materials under high strength cold working conditions are usually used for bolting and shafting connections, but there are some minor compromises in corrosion resistance compared to annealing conditions in some environments.
UNS S20910 / XM-19 stainless steel (annealed) is more resistant to crevice corrosion (e.g., crevice corrosion) than type 316/316L.As [SCALE STEEL]with most austenitic stainless steels (such as 304 and 316), XM-19 steel may undergo stress corrosion cracking in an environment containing thermochloride ions.
XM - 19 Features:
Xm-19 stainless steel has a perfect combination of corrosion resistance and strength not found in any other commercial material.The corrosion resistance of this austenitic stainless steel is superior to alloys 316, 316L, 317, 317L, and the yield strength at room temperature is approximately twice that of these [SCALE STEEL]alloys.In addition, the XM-19 differs from most austenitic stainless steels in its excellent mechanical properties at both high and sub-zero temperatures.
XM-19 also does not become magnetic at low temperatures.
The yield strength of the HIGH strength[SCALE STEEL] (HS) XM-19 is approximately 3 times that of 316 stainless steel.
XM-19 Application Areas:
Widely used in the Marine, nuclear, chemical and oil and gas industries.
Electric furnace steel is the steel produced by electric furnace.There are many kinds of electric furnace, arc furnace, induction furnace, electroslag furnace, electron beam furnace, consumable electric arc furnace.But generally said electric furnace [SCALE STEEL]steel is produced with alkaline arc furnace steel.
There are various types of electric furnace steel, most of which are high quality carbon structural steel, tool steel and alloy steel.Electric furnace steel is of good quality and even performance.At the same carbon content, the strength and plasticity are better [SCALE STEEL]than open hearth steel.
Electric furnace steel is the steel produced by electric furnace.There are many kinds of electric furnace, arc furnace, induction furnace, electroslag furnace, electron beam furnace, consumable electric arc furnace.But generally said electric furnace steel is produced with alkaline arc furnace steel.
Electric furnace steelmaking has the advantages of less pollution, higher thermal efficiency and higher smelting quality.But it also has the disadvantage of high consumption of electric energy and high production cost.
There are various types of electric furnace steel, most of which are high quality carbon structural steel, tool steel and alloy steel.Electric furnace steel is of good quality and even performance.At the same carbon content, the strength and plasticity are better [SCALE STEEL]than open hearth steel.
Electric furnace steel production is one of the main production processes of modern steel.Compared with converter steelmaking, it has the advantages of low investment, short construction period, quick effect and short production process, flexible production scheduling, high smelting ratio of excellent special steel, especially alloy steel, high alloy steel and other high value-added, high strength, high toughness and other [SCALE STEEL]high performance special steel varieties smelting, basically relying on electric furnace.
The modern electric furnace process is as follows: electric furnace smelting one or two times refining one continuous casting one (hot delivery hot charge) one rolling.Electricity and scrap steel are two necessary conditions for the production [SCALE STEEL]of electric furnace steel.55% of the cost of electric furnace steel in special steel enterprises comes from scrap.The power consumption cost of special steel enterprises accounts for 15% of the total cost.
Evolution Of Electric Furnace Steel Technology:
The industrial technology of electric arc furnace steelmaking can be traced back to a patent applied by Paul Heroult in 1899.Until the 1950s, eAF was only used in the production of special steels, high-alloy steels or special alloys.
In the 1960s, the emergence of ultra-high power (UHP) arc furnace and the application of oxygen smelting technology brought the technology of arc furnace steelmaking into a period of rapid development. "small mills" represented by the small billet continuous casting one-wire mill with scrap steel as raw material gradually occupied [SCALE STEEL]the regional market of long profile steel products.
In the 1970s, the rise of a group of high-productivity electric furnace short-process steel mills represented by Nucor corporation in the United States marked that eAF steelmaking has become another important production process corresponding to THE BF-BOF process.
After the mid - 80 - s, the development of eaf steelmaking technology and to enter into another big change period, is the landmark of the electric arc furnace steel-making enterprises entered the flat material market, especially the social large-scale recycling scrap steel resources, and improve quality, shorten the smelting cycle, [SCALE STEEL]reducing energy consumption, environment friendly the emergence of various kinds of electric arc furnace systematic technology.
According to the classification of smelting equipment, steel can be divided into converter steel, open hearth steel and electric furnace steel.
According to the different electric heating mode and steel furnace type, electric furnace steel can be divided into arc furnace steel, non-vacuum induction furnace steel, vacuum induction furnace steel, electroslag furnace steel, vacuum arc furnace steel (also known as vacuum consumable furnace steel), electron beam furnace steel, etc.
Electric Arc Furnace Steel:
Electric arc furnace steel refers to the electric energy input into the furnace through graphite electrode, and the electric arc occurring between the electric extreme and the charge (scrap steel, etc.) is used as heat source to melt and refine the charge and alloy material into steel.The main varieties of eAF steel are high quality carbon steel, low alloy steel and alloy steel.The eAF steelmaking process is the main steelmaking [SCALE STEEL]process for the production of high quality steel and special quality steel.
Non - Vacuum Induction Furnace Steel:
Non - vacuum induction furnace steel refers to the use of induction heating effect in the non - vacuum induction furnace to make scrap steel, alloy material and other charge melting and refining steel.The main varieties are special quality alloy steel.
Vacuum Induction Furnace Steel:
Vacuum induction furnace steel refers to the steel which is melted and refined by using the induction heating effect to waste steel and alloy material in the vacuum induction furnace.Vacuum induction furnace steel gas content is low, sulfur, phosphorus impurity element content is low, less inclusions.The main varieties are special quality alloy steels for special purposes.
Electroslag Furnace Steel:
Electroslag furnace steel refers to the steel produced by the smelting process of open - hearth furnace, converter, arc furnace or induction [SCALE STEEL]furnace through casting or forging into electrodes and secondary remelting through slag resistance in electroslag furnace.Electroslag furnace steel low sulfur content, less impurity elements, less inclusions.The main type of electroslag furnace steel is special quality alloy steel.
Quality Characteristics Of Electric Furnace Steel:
Mass fractions of various steelmaking processes and gases
Compared with open hearth furnace and oxygen converter steelmaking process, the outstanding feature of the electric furnace steelmaking process is the free choice of oxidation and reduction conditions, that is, in addition to oxidizing slag, but also to make a special component of reducing slag, so that the liquid steel can be better deoxidization, desulfurization and alloying.So the electric furnace is mainly used for [SCALE STEEL]smelting special steel and high quality steel.It is more economical to use electric furnace with strong applicability when smelting steel with small quantity and large variety.
The main characteristic of electric furnace steel is its low content of oxygen, sulfur and non-metallic inclusions, so it has high mechanical and technological properties.Due to the positive absorption of gases in the arc zone by the molten pool, the content of nitrogen and hydrogen in the electric furnace steel is relatively high. As shown in The Mass fraction of Various Steelmaking Processes and Gases, due to the different uses of different types of steel, the quality evaluation index is not exactly the same, [SCALE STEEL]so there are specific requirements for the quality of all kinds of steel in the production.
Electroslag (melting casting) is a kind of secondary refining technology, which is a comprehensive metallurgical casting process combining secondary refining of molten steel with directional solidification.The principle is that the current [SCALE STEEL]passes through the liquid slag pool slag heat resistance, the metal electrode melts, the molten metal collects into the molten drop, drops through the slag layer into the metal molten pool, and then crystallizes in the water-cooled crystallizer to solidify into ingots.
ESR is the refining process of casting or forging steel smelted in open - hearth furnace, converter, arc furnace or induction furnace into electrodes for secondary remelting by slag resistance heat.The principle of this refining method was first proposed by R.K.Hopkins in the 1940s.Then the Soviet Union and the United States [SCALE STEEL]established electroslag furnaces for industrial production.In the mid-1960s, electroslag remelting developed rapidly in The Soviet Union, Western Europe and the United States due to the development of aviation, aerospace, electronics, atomic energy and other industries.The products include: high quality alloy steel, high temperature alloy, precision alloy, corrosion resistant alloy and aluminum, copper, titanium, silver and other non-ferrous metal alloys.In 1980, the world's production capacity of electroslag remelting steel exceeded 1.2 million tons.
Molten slag is contained in a copper water-cooled crystallizer and one end of the consumable electrode is inserted into the slag.Consumable electrode, slag pool, metal melting pool, steel ingot and bottom water tank form circuit through short wire and transformer.In the process of electrification, joule heat is released from the slag pool, and the consumable extreme end is gradually melted, and the molten metal is gathered into droplets, which pass through the slag pool and fall into the crystallizer, forming a [SCALE STEEL]metal melting pool, which is cooled by water and quickly solidified into ingots.During the droplet formation stage at the end of the electrode and the droplet dropping through the slag pool, the steel and slag are in full contact, and the non-metallic inclusion in the steel is absorbed by the slag.The harmful elements (sulfur, lead, antimony, bismuth, tin) in steel can be effectively removed by steel-slag reaction and high-temperature gasification.The reoxidation of liquid metal is basically avoided under the cover of slag pool.Because it is melted, refined and [SCALE STEEL]solidified in a copper water-cooled crystallizer, the pollution of steel by refractory materials is eliminated.Before the ingot solidifies, there are metal melting pool and slag pool on the upper end of the ingot, which play the role of heat preservation and retraction to ensure the densification of the ingot.The rising slag pool forms a thin slag shell on the inner wall of the mold, which not only makes the surface of the ingot smooth, but also acts as insulation and heat insulation, so that more heat is transferred to the lower part, which is conducive to the directional crystallization of the ingot from the bottom up.Because of the above reasons, the quality and performance of the steel ingots produced by electroslag remelting are improved, the plasticity and impact toughness of alloy steel are enhanced at low temperature, room temperature [SCALE STEEL]and high temperature, and the service life of steel is prolonged.
Inconel 600 alloy is nickel - chromium - iron based solid solution strengthened alloy, with good high temperature corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, excellent cold and hot working and welding properties, under 700℃ with satisfactory thermal [SCALE STEEL]strength and high plasticity.
The alloy can be hardened by cold working and can also be joined by resistance welding, dissolution welding or brazing, making it suitable for making anti-oxidation parts that can withstand low loads below 1100 ° C.
● Thermocouple sleeve in corrosive atmosphere
● Vinyl chloride monomer production: resistance to chlorine, hydrogen chloride, oxidation and carbonization corrosion
Conversion of uranium oxidation to hexafluoride: Resistant to hydrogen fluoride corrosion
● The production and use of corrosive alkali metals, [SCALE STEEL]especially in environments where sulfides are used
● Titanium dioxide by chlorine gas process
● Organic or inorganic chloride and fluoride production: resistance to chlorine and fluorine gas corrosion
● Nuclear reactor
● Curved neck flask and parts in heat treatment furnace, especially in carbonization and nitriding atmosphere
● The catalytic regenerator in petrochemical production is recommended to use alloy 600H for long service life in applications above 700℃.
镍Ni 铬Cr 铁Fe 碳C 锰Mn 硅Si 铜Cu 铝Al 钛Ti 硼B 磷P 硫S
MIN 72 14 6
MAX 17 10 0.15 1 0.5 0.5 - - - - 0.015
Preparation of Titanium Dioxide:
● Has a good resistance to reduction, oxidation, nitriding medium corrosion performance
● It has good resistance to stress corrosion cracking at room temperature and high temperature
● Has a good resistance to dry chlorine gas and hydrogen chloride gas corrosion performance
● Excellent mechanical properties z at sub-zero, room temperature and high temperature
As the control of carbon content and grain size has good [SCALE STEEL]creep resistance and fracture strength, it is recommended to use the working environment above 700℃.
Equivalent Grades in Different Standards:
GH3600、GH600（China）、NC15Fe（France）、W. Nr .2.4816、NiCr15Fe（Germany）、NA14（England）Inconel 600、UNS NO6600(America） NiCr15Fe8(ISO)Inconel 600 Standards：UNS N06600，DIN/EN 2.4816，ASTM B168，ASME SB-168，AMS 5540，NCF 600
The Following Filler Metals Are Recommended For Welding:
Tungsten Electrode Gas Welding Nicrofer S 7020 AWS A5.14: ERNiCr-3
Metal Electrode Gas Shielded Welding AWS A5.11: ENiCr-3
For Alloy 600h At High Temperature (Approx. 900℃), The Following Solder Is Recommended:
Tungsten Electrode Gas Welding[SCALE STEEL] Nicrofer S 6020 AWS A514, ERNiCr-3
or AWS A514, ERNiCrFe-5
Tungsten Electrode Gas Welding AWS A5.11, ENiCr-3
or AWS A5.11, ENiCrFe-5
Argon Arc Welding Is Recommended To Obtain The Best Corrosion Resistance
To obtain optimum corrosion resistance, argon arc welding is recommended for the Inconel 600 suitable any traditional welding process with the same material or other metal welding, such as gas tungsten arc welding, plasma arc welding and manual arc welding, metal inert gas protection welding, melting inert gas protection welding, including pulsed arc welding is the preferred [SCALE STEEL]solution.When manual arc welding is used, it is recommended to use (Ar+He+H2+CO2) multi-component shielding gas.
Incoloy 825 welds must be annealed and cleaned of stains, dust, and marks using a stainless steel wire brush.In order to obtain the best quality of the root weld, care must be taken (argon 99.99) so that no oxide is produced after the root weld is completed.The color produced by the welding heat affected zone should be brushed away with the stainless steel brush when [SCALE STEEL]the welding zone is not cooled.
For gas shielded welding processes, the following filler metals are recommended
Nicrofer S 6020-FM625
AWS A5.14: ERNiCr-3
AWS A5.11: ENiCr-3
GRADES& GRADE CHEMICAL SMLS WELDED PIPE PLATE ROUND BAR STRIPS WELD ROD FORGED
德国 W .N r.2.4816 10095 17751 10095 10095 10095 10095 17754
EN DIN NiCr15Fe 17742 305 17750 17752 17750 17753 305
DIN 305 305 305
英国 NA14 3074 3072 3076 3073 3075
美国 UNS NO6600 B167 B163/B516/517 B168 B166 B168 B166 B564
ASTM SB167 SB163/SB516/SB517 SB168 SB166 SB168 SB166 SB564
ASME 5580 5540 5665 5540 5687 5565
ISO NiCr15Fe8 [SCALE STEEL]
2.1.1 Melting Temperature Range 1370～1430℃。
2.1.2 Heat Conductivity see Table 2-1。
θ/℃ 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
λ/（W/（m·℃）） 12.85 13.94 15.15 16.62 18.71 20.72 22.4 24.49 27 29.51 31.6
2.1.3 Specific Heat see P2-1。
2.1.4 Coefficient Of Linear Expansion see Table2-2。
2.2 Inconel 600 Density ρ=8.43g/cm3。
2.3 Inconel 600 Electrical Property [SCALE STEEL]Resistivity see Table 2-2。
θ/℃ 20～200 20～300 20～400 20～500 20～600 20～700 20～800 20～1000
α/10-6℃-1 12.35 12.75 13.1 13.55 14.5 15.15 15.7 16.2
2.4 Inconel 600’s Magnetic : Alloys Have No Magnetism