NS3304 (NS334), N10276, 2.4819, NW0276, C-276 Full Corrosion Resistant Nickel-Based Alloys- SCALE STEEL.
C-276 alloy is the first forged nickel-based alloy used to alleviate welding problems. It is currently one of the most corrosion resistant alloys in the world, with a wide [SCALE STEEL]range of corrosion resistance in a variety of highly corrosive media and a density of 8.89g/cm³.
CHINA GB/T 15007-2008 NS3304（NS334）
AMERICA ASTM B574-2006 Alloy N10276
GERMANY DIN 17744:2002 NiMo16Cr15W
JAPAN JIS H4551-2000[SCALE STEEL] NW0276
Grade NS3304 N10276 2.4819 NW0276
C ≤0.020 ≤0.010 ≤0.010 ≤0.010
Si ≤0.08 ≤0.08 ≤0.08 ≤0.08
Mn ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00
P ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.020
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.015
Cr 14.5~16.5 14.5~16.5 14.5~16.5 14.5~16.5
Ni rest rem. rest Other
Mo 15.0~17.0 15.0~17.0 15.0~17.0 15.0~17.0
Fe 4.0~7.0 4.0~7.0 4.0~7.0 4.0~7.0
W 3.0~4.5 3.0~4.5[SCALE STEEL] 3.0~4.5 3.0~4.5
Co ≤2.50 ≤2.50 ≤2.50 ≤2.50
V ≤0.35 ≤0.35 ≤0.35 ≤0.35
Cu -- -- -- ≤0.50
AMERICA Haynes International HASTELLOY® C-276
Special Metals INCONEL® Alloy C-276
GERMANY VDM Metals[SCALE STEEL] VDM® Alloy C-276
Nicrofer 5716 hMoW
JAPAN NIPPON YAKIN NAS NW276
SWEDEN SANDVIK Sanicro 56Mo
① High chromium molybdenum content, can withstand oxidation and non-oxidation acid, and has excellent resistance to pitting and crack erosion in the presence of chloride and other halides.For example, in many harsh corrosive environments, including sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, hypochlorite, [SCALE STEEL]wet chlorine, etc., it has good corrosion resistance to uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, pitting and crevice corrosion;Strong resistance to sulfide stress cracking and stress corrosion cracking in acidic oilfield environment.
② Low carbon content can reduce the carbide precipitation during welding, so as to ensure the intergranular corrosion resistance in the heat-affected zone of welded joints.
Because of its excellent overall corrosion resistance, C276 is generally considered to be a versatile corrosion resistant nickel-based alloy with [SCALE STEEL]wide applications in the chemical, petrochemical and petroleum industries.Applications include chemical applications for a variety of production purposes, power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and acid oil field environments.
Alloy28(UNS N08028) is an ultra-low carbon Fe-Ni base corrosion resistant alloy with a density of 8.0g/cm3.According to the naming method of metal materials in [SCALE STEEL]China, the grade of this alloy is 00Cr27Ni31Mo3Cu.
AMERICA ASTM B668
ASTM B709 UNS N08028
GERMANY DIN EN 10088-1 1.4563
Grade N08028 1.4563
C ≤0.030 ≤0.020
Si ≤1.00[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.70
Mn ≤2.50 ≤2.00
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.010
Cr 26.0~28.0 26.0~28.0
Ni 29.5~32.5 30.0~32.0
Mo 3.0~4.0 3.0~4.0
Cu 0.60~1.40 0.70~1.50
N -- ≤0.11
Fe rest rest
Special Metals INCOLOY® alloy 028
Sandvik SANICRO 28
1.It has good corrosion resistance in strong acid environment.
2.It has good stress corrosion cracking resistance [SCALE STEEL]in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and chloride environment.
3.Good intergranular corrosion resistance.
4.High resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.
Alloy28 early is developed to solve the wet-process phosphoric acid heat exchanger material alloy, corrosion resistant performance is very superior, to [SCALE STEEL]H2S, chloride, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid corrosion resistance, high H2S content in the oil and gas exploitation, flue gas desulfurization system, papermaking industry, phosphoric acid and organic acid and ester synthesis production device has a large number of applications and performances.
633 Stainless Steel is precipitated hardened stainless steel, can be subjected to low temperature heat treatment to obtain different levels of strength, [SCALE STEEL]for high strength and excellent weldability and corrosion resistance occasions.
CHINA GB/T 20878-2007 09Cr17Ni5Mo3N
AMERICA ASTM A693-2003 S35000，633
EUROPE EN 10088-1:2005[SCALE STEEL] (1.4457)
C 0.07~0.11 Cr 16.0~17.0 Ni 4.00~5.00
Si ≤0.50 P ≤0.040 Mo 2.50~3.20
Mn 0.50~1.25 S ≤0.030[SCALE STEEL] N 0.07~0.13
AMERICA ATI Metals AM 350®
JAPAN TOKKIN TOKKIN® 350
The corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steels is better than that of other martensitic stainless steels which can be quenched and hardened. [SCALE STEEL]In most media, the corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steels is comparable to that of 316 type stainless steels.
② High strength.After heat treatment according to national standard specification, hardness ≥36HRC or ≥42HRC can be obtained.
③ It is easier to weld than other stainless steels that can be precipitated and hardened. It can be welded by traditional inert gas method.
633Stainless Steel is commonly used in applications up to 1000°F (537 ° C) where strength and good corrosion resistance are required, such as [SCALE STEEL]gas turbine compressor components (blades, plates, rotors and shafts), and similar components requiring high strength at room and moderate temperatures;Precision seals, couplings for semiconductor processing equipment and high vacuum systems;Aerospace applications requiring high strength edge welded bellows, etc.
04Cr13Ni5Mo, also known as 0Cr13Ni5Mo (no standard), is a typical type of super martensitic stainless steel."Super martensitic stainless steel" is [SCALE STEEL]made of martensitic stainless steel with improved smelting process, reduced carbon content and increased nickel-molybdenum alloy element. Its performance is better than that of conventional martensitic stainless steel.
CHINA GB/T 20878-2007
GB/T 4237-2015 04Cr13Ni5Mo
AMERICA ASTM A182-10a F6NM，S41500
JAPAN JIS G 3214:2009 SUS F6NM[SCALE STEEL]
JIS G 5121:2003 SCS6
GERMANY DIN EN 10088-2:2005 X3CrNiMo13-4
F6NM,SUSF6NM SCS6 1.4313
C ≤0.05 ≤0.06 ≤0.05
Si ≤0.60[SCALE STEEL] ≤1.0 ≤0.70
Mn 0.50~1.00 ≤1.0 ≤1.50
P ≤0.030 ≤0.040 ≤0.040
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.015
Cr 11.5~14.0 11.5~14.0 12.0~14.0
Ni 3.5~5.5 3.5~4.5 3.5~4.5
Mo 0.5~1.0 0.4~1.0 0.3~0.7
N -- -- ≥0.02
Performance And Application:
Super martensitic stainless steel not only has good corrosion resistance, weldability, but also has the characteristics of high strength and good[SCALE STEEL] low temperature toughness. It has great application potential in the fields of hydropower, mining equipment, chemical equipment, food industry, transportation and high-temperature pulp production equipment.As a typical type of super martensitic stainless steel, 04Cr13Ni5Mo is usually used as hydropower steel, is a conventional material for hydraulic turbine equipment.
409Ni stainless steel is a low chromium niobium stabilized ferritic stainless steel. The addition of nickel can improve corrosion resistance and toughness in welding conditions.Compared with 430 or 304 stainless steel it does not belong to corrosion resistance or high temperature oxidation resistance material, but it is more suitable for low [SCALE STEEL]alloy corrosion resistance steel, low carbon steel and coated low carbon steel.When stainless steel 409Ni is exposed to harsh atmospheric conditions, dyeing may occur.409 Nickel alloys should only be used in aesthetically not as a primary requirement, such as in mildly corrosive conditions.The annealed 409Ni is malleable and does not hardento any significant extent during cold operation.
As a result, it can be pulled onto a wire and formed into the desired shape using most standard techniques.409Ni should not be used in low temperature [SCALE STEEL]applications below zero due to brittle transition and fracture hazards. It is a ferritic stainless steel.In automotive applications, the SS409NI has found its main application.
The 409Ni stainless steel is an ideal material for meters larger than 0.120 in. Its weldability and toughness is superior to that of the standard 409 model.The cost is relatively low.Transportation applications include automotive exhaust flanges, hopper [SCALE STEEL]bodies and discharge chutes, intermodal containers, trailers, bus frames, and dump truck bed liners.In conditions as slippery as those encountered in coal handling equipment, 409 nickel stainless steel is a more economical solution.Potential coal handling applications include chutes, hoppers, bunkers, flooring, perforated plates, sizing machines, flight conveyor grinders, vibrating screen plates, silo feeders, paddle mixers, screw feeders, fuel tank and dryer assemblies.Additional applications include noise suppression barriers, mud pipes, heat shields, cyclones, silos, belt scraper blades, screens and tanks.
Technical Data for 409Ni, UNS S40975 Stainless Steel:
C -- Mn -- P -- S -- Si -- Cr -- Ni -- N -- Fe
0.03 -- 1 -- 0.04 -- 0.03 -- 1 -- 10.5-11.7 -- 0.50=1.0 -- 0.03 -- Rest
TENSILE STRENGTH(MPA) -- YIELD STRENGTH(MPA) -- ELONGATION(%)
415 -- 276 -- 20
0Cr16Ni6 is a precipitated hardening stainless steel with controlled phase transition. After solution treatment, the microstructure is about 40% martensite, 60% austenite and a small amount of δferrite. After cold treatment [SCALE STEEL]or cold deformation, the microstructure is basically transformed into martensite.
Equivalent Grades with 0Cr16Ni6:
⑴AMERICA：Croloy 16-6 PH
Chemical Composition(%) for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Properties for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Specific Heat Capacity [J/(kg·℃)]
Heat Conductivity [W/(m·℃)]
Coefficient Of Linear Expansion (10-6/℃)
Heat Treatment System for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
There are two ways of martensite transformation after 0Cr16Ni6 solution treatment: cryogenic (R) treatment and cold (C) treatment. [SCALE STEEL]After treatment, the martensite volume in the treated tissue increases to about 90%, and the rest is austenite.
After the whole heat treatment, the hardness of 0Cr16Ni6 at room temperature: 40~48HRC.
Heat Treatment Status for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
⑴RH Condition：Solid Solution Treatment + Cryogenic Treatment + Tempering.
⑵CH Condition：Solution Treatment + Cold Rolling Or Cold Drawing + Tempering.
Heat Treatment Process
⑴ Solid Solution Treatment: Electric Furnace 1000±10℃×30min, < 30℃ Cooling Water;
⑵ Cryogenic Treatment: -70~-80℃×2h;
⑶ Tempering Treatment: [SCALE STEEL]420±10℃×1h, Air Cooling.
Reference Hardness for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Scheme of Heat Treatment
Solid Solution+Subzero Treatment
Solid Solution+Subzero Treatment+Tempering
Performance Characteristics for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
⑴ High strength, low notch sensitivity and insensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement.
⑵ The uniform corrosion resistance of 431 was similar to that of 431;Good stress corrosion resistance;The intergranular corrosion resistance can meet the technical requirements of "L" method when the intergranular [SCALE STEEL]corrosion test is carried out according to "Test Method for Intergranular Corrosion Tendency of Stainless and Acid Resistant Steels".
(3) It has stable oxidation resistance in the air medium below 420℃ and in the atmosphere of aviation fuel combustion products.
(4) Thermal processing temperature range: 1100~900℃;The cold working properties of austenitic stainless steels are between that of martensitic stainless steels.
⑸ Good welding performance, [SCALE STEEL]parts need to be RH treatment after welding.
Applications for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
0Cr16Ni6 is a kind of martensitic-austenite double-phase stainless steel with high strength, high toughness and good corrosion resistance. [SCALE STEEL]It is suitable for making aircraft and engine stress components working below 450℃, as well as other important components working in atmosphere, acetic acid and salt medium.
W6Mo5Cr4V2Al, referred to as 501, also known as M2Al, is on the basis of W6Mo5Cr4V2 carbon content from 0.08% ~ 0.90% to 1.05% ~ 1.15%, and add 1% Al and the formation of superhard high-speed steel, is a typical grade of aluminum high-speed steel.
High speed steel containing aluminum is an original [SCALE STEEL]steel in China, characterized by "no cobalt" and "low price".Because cobalt resources are scarce, replacing cobalt with aluminum is a feasible and favorable plan in China.Austrian BOHLER steel mill developed 501 similar steel class S620 based on the research of Chinese counterparts.
Chemical Composition(%) for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Standard GB/T 9943-2008(High Speed Tool Steel)
Grade W6Mo5Cr4V2Al W6Mo5Cr4V2
C 1.05~1.15 0.80~0.90
Si 0.20~0.60 0.20~0.45
Mn 0.15~0.40 0.15~0.40
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030
Cr 3.80~4.40 3.80~4.40
V 1.75~2.20 1.75~2.20
W 5.50~6.75[SCALE STEEL] 5.50~6.75
Mo 4.50~5.50 4.50~5.50
Al 0.80~1.20 --
Heat Treatment（GB/T 9943-2008）for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Hardness under Annealed Treatment ≤269HBW
Quenching Salt Bath Furnace 1200~1220℃
Box-Type Furnace 1230~1240℃
Quenching Medium Oil or Salt Bath
Tempering 550~570℃ for 1h[SCALE STEEL]
Tempering Times Twice
Example Case for Heat Treatment Process for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Preheating with Low Tem 450~500℃ for 1~1.5h
Preheating with Mid Tem 850~900℃，Heating Time According To The Effective Section 20~25s/mm
Heating by Quenching 1210±10℃，Heating Time According To The Effective Section 15~20s/mm
Cooling by Steps 580~620℃，Neutral Salt Bath[SCALE STEEL]
Air Cooling When The Furnace Is Cooled To 600℃, The Furnace Is Cooled To Room Temperature
Tempering with High Tem 550±10℃ for 2~3h
Tempering with MId Tem 530±10℃ for 2~3h
Properties for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
The hardness of 501 is 67~69HRC at room temperature and 54~55HRC at 600℃, making it more than W18Cr4V and comparable to superhard high-speed steel M42. The toughness and grinding performance are better than vanadium superhard high-speed [SCALE STEEL]steel.
Research shows that compared with W9Mo3Cr4V (W9) material, 501 price is the same, but 501 material tool processing efficiency increases 30%, cutting speed increases 58%, tool life extends 2~3 times.Compared with W2Mo9Cr4VCo8 (M42) material, the machining efficiency and cutting performance of 501 tool are basically the same, but the [SCALE STEEL]price of M42 is 3 times that of 501.
The defects of 501 are high vanadium content, poor grinding workability, strong overheating sensitivity, oxidation and decarbonization tendency, so protective measures should be taken during hot processing and heat treatment.
Applications for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
The high speed steel 501 has the advantages of high hardness, wear resistance, high red hardness, high temperature hardness, good thermoplasticity and so on. It is made into cutting tools such as plane cutter, hob, broaching tool and so on.[SCALE STEEL] It has a good effect when it is used to process high-temperature alloy, ultra-high strength steel and other difficult cutting materials, and it is also used to make high load cold working die, such as cold extrusion die.
45# steel is carbon structural steel with carbon content of 0.45%. It is characterized by cheap price, good cutting performance, high hardness after quenching, [SCALE STEEL]good strength and toughness and certain wear resistance after quenching and tempering treatment. It is widely used in the manufacture of structural parts and medium and low grade plastic molds.
"45# steel" is a popular name, the symbol is generally[SCALE STEEL] written as "45#".Actually GB standard steel number is "45", it is not a serial number, read as "45# steel" is not very accurate.
The similar grades of 45 steel are S45C(JIS) and 1045(AISI).In addition, China's metallurgical technology standards have SM45 marks specifically [SCALE STEEL]indicated the use of plastic mold.Compared with 45 steel, SM45 steel has lower phosphorus and sulfur content and better steel purity.
Standards GB/T 699 Grades 45
C 0.42~0.50 Cr ≤0.25
Si 0.17~0.37 Ni ≤0.30
Mn 0.50~0.80 Cu ≤0.25
P,S P S
(45) ≤0.035 ≤0.035
(45A) ≤0.030 ≤0.030
(45E) ≤0.025[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.020
Standards YB/T 094 AISI JIS G4051
Grades SM45 1045 S45C
C 0.42~0.48 0.43~0.50 0.42~0.48
Si 0.17~0.37 -- 0.15~0.35
Mn 0.50~0.80 0.60~0.90 0.60~0.90
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.050[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.035
Mechanical Property（GB/T 699-1999）
Sample Size（mm） 25
Suggested Heat Treatment（℃） Normalizing 850
Mechanical Property Tensile StrengthMPa ≥600
Yield Strength MPa ≥355
Elongation%[SCALE STEEL] ≥16
Reduction of Area% ≥40
Impact Test Value J ≥39
HBS Before Heat Treatment ≤229
Note: For steel larger than 80mm, the elongation and section shrinkage after fracture are allowed to be reduced by 2% and 5% respectively compared with the above table.
Heat Treatment and Hardness
Recommended quenching process specification: [SCALE STEEL]quenching temperature is 820~860℃, water or oil cold, hardness ≥50HRC.
The recommended tempering process specification: tempering temperature is 500~560℃, air cooling, hardness is 25~33HRC.
Tempering in this temperature range is a tempering treatment.The strength, plasticity and toughness of 45 steel are well balanced by tempering and tempering, and the comprehensive performance is good, which can adapt to the environment of alternating load.
After tempering and tempering, 45 steel has [SCALE STEEL]low surface hardness and no wear resistance.So commonly used quenching and tempering + surface hardening to improve the surface hardness of parts.
Relationship between Temperature and Hardness under Tempering Treatment:
Tem Quenching Unit（℃）
200 300 400 500 550 600
HRC 57 55 50 41 33 26 22
Note: ① quenching is water quenching at 840℃.(2) 45 steel after quenching without tempering, hardness is greater than HRC55 [SCALE STEEL](up to HRC62) is qualified.The maximum hardness of practical application is HRC55 (HRC58 for high frequency quenching).
5CrNiMo is a kind of hot die steel.Often referred to as 5CrMnMo.Both are low alloy steels (alloy content ≤5%), low carbon content, have good hardenability[SCALE STEEL] and impact toughness, used for the die with low temperature and large impact load, such as hammer forging die.
▶ 5CrNiMo、5CrMnMo Chemical Composition Comparation:
Grades 5CrNiMo 5CrMnMo
C 0.50~0.60 0.50~0.60
Si ≤0.40 0.25~0.60
Mn 0.50~0.80 1.20~1.60
Cr 0.50~0.80 0.60~0.90
Ni 1.40~1.80 ≤0.25
Mo 0.15~0.30 0.15~0.30
Cu ≤0.25 ≤0.25
5CrMnMo replaces nickel with manganese, which is the joint nickel steel of 5CrNiMo. Its strength is slightly higher than that of 5CrNiMo, but its hardenability and impact toughness are obviously lower, and its heat resistance fatigue performance [SCALE STEEL]is also slightly inferior.According to the different performance characteristics of the two, 5CrNiMo is mostly used in the manufacture of medium-sized (die height greater than 300mm) or complex cavity hot forging dies;And 5CrMnMo is suitable for making small forging dies (die height less than 300mm).
5CrNiMo has good toughness and hardenability, and is insensitive to size effect.High strength can be maintained under 400℃, but the strength drops sharply above 400℃. For example, when the temperature rises to 550℃, the yield point drops by nearly half compared with room temperature.
Hot work die steels can be divided into low heat resistant steels (350 ~ 370℃), medium heat resistant steels (550 ~ 600℃) and high heat[SCALE STEEL] resistant steels (580 ~ 650℃) according to different working temperatures.According to this definition, 5CrNiMo is a low heat resistance and high toughness hot work die steel.
There are two standards for 5CrNiMo steel in China: GB/T 24594-2009 (high quality alloy die steel) and GB/T 1299-2014 (die steel).
▶ 5CrNiMo’s Equivalent Materials in Different Standards
Standard GB AISI JIS W-Nr
Grades 5CrNiMo L6 SKT4 1.2713 1.2714
Si ≤0.40 0.10
0.80[SCALE STEEL] 0.60
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.020 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
0.30 ≤0.50 0.35
V (≤0.20) —[SCALE STEEL] 0.05
▶ Popular Brands for 5CrNiMo
DAIDO HITACHI KOSHUHA ASSAB BÖHLER
GFA DM KTV ALVAR 14 W500
▶ 5CrNiMo’s Hardness
The annealing (or normalizing) hardness of 5CrNiMo is in the range of HBW 197~241, and it can be pre-hardened to HRC 38~43 for delivery, [SCALE STEEL]and its quenching hardness can reach HRC 53~58.
Spring steel refers to steel specially used to manufacture springs and elastic elements because of its elasticity under quenching and tempering [SCALE STEEL]conditions.The elasticity of a steel depends on its ability to elastically deform, that is, to withstand a certain load within a specified range without permanent deformation after the load is removed.
65Mn is a typical spring steel with high strength, high hardenability, low decarburization tendency, but it is sensitive to overheating, easy to produce [SCALE STEEL]quenching cracks and temper brittleness.Its cutting performance is also good, in the annealing state, the relative machinability of 70%.
As low manganese spring steel (GB/T 1222), 65Mn is used for manufacturing large flat spring, cushion spring, spring spring, also suitable for manufacturing [SCALE STEEL]spring ring, valve spring, clutch spring, brake spring cold drawn wire (≤7mm), cold coil spring, etc.
High elastic limit, yield strength and fatigue strength, and high hardenability, good cutting characteristics, also makes 65Mn become the main material for[SCALE STEEL] manufacturing diamond circular saw blade.
In addition to the use of spring, 65Mn is another identity of carbon structural steel (GB/T 699), used in the field of machine processing, is a typical [SCALE STEEL]material of cold work die steel, among which round steel is the most widely used field.
STANDARDS GB/T 1222 ASTM A689
GRADES 65Mn 1566
C 0.62~0.70 0.60~0.71
Si 0.17~0.37 --
Mn 0.90~1.20 0.85~1.15
P ≤0.035[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.040
S ≤0.035 ≤0.050
Cr ≤0.25 --
Ni ≤0.25 --
Cu ≤0.25 --
MECHANICAL PROPERTY（GB/T 1222-2007）
SAMPLE SIZE（mm） 10
HEAT TREATMENT QUENCHING TEM 830℃
QUENCHING MEDIUM MEDIA OIL
TEMPERING TEM 540℃
MECHANICAL PROPERTY TENSILE STRENGTH MPa[SCALE STEEL] ≥980
YIELD STRENGTH MPa ≥785
ELONGATION % ≥8
REDUCTION OF AREA % ≥30
HBW HOT ROLLED ≤302
COLD BEND + HEAT TREATMENT ≤321