Invar alloy belongs to high nickel alloy based on iron, nickel content is up to 36%, has a very low coefficient of linear expansion below 100℃, also called inflatable steel.The Invar trademark was originally held by the French alloy company [SCALE STEEL]Infi.Invar is short for Invariability, meaning volume does not vary.
CHINA YB/T 5241-2005 4J36
FRANCE AFNOR NF A54-301 Fe-Ni36
GERMANY DIN 17745:2002 Ni36，1.3912
AMERICA ASTM F1684-2005 UNS K93603
ASTM B753-2013[SCALE STEEL] T-36
GRADE 4J36 1.3912 K93603 T-36
C ≤0.05 ≤0.05 ≤0.05 ≤0.15
Si ≤0.30 ≤0.30 ≤0.40 ≤0.40
Mn 0.20~0.60 ≤0.50 ≤0.60 ≤0.60
P ≤0.020[SCALE STEEL] -- ≤0.015b ≤0.025
S ≤0.020 -- ≤0.015b ≤0.025
Cr -- -- ≤0.25 ≤0.25
Ni 35.0~37.0 35.0~37.0 36.0 36.0
Co -- -- ≤0.50 ≤0.50
Zr -- -- ≤0.10a --
Ti -- -- ≤0.10a --
Al -- -- ≤0.10a --
Mg -- -- ≤0.10a --
Fe -- -- -- --
FRANCE Aperam Alloys Imphy
(Imphy Alloys) Invar®
AMERICA CARPENTER Invar 36® Alloy
ATI[SCALE STEEL] ATI 36™
Special Metals NILO alloy 36
GERMANY VDM Metals Pernifer® 36
VAC VACODIL 36
JAPAN NIPPON YAKIN NAS 36
ITALY Valbruna AG SG5
g/cm3 heat conductivity coefficient
W·(m·K)-1 elasticity modulus
8.12 0.109~0.134 134000 140
strength of extension
% erishen value
mm magnetic permeability
500 30 9.8 2.04
Linear expansion coefficient (YB/T 5241-2005)
The ratio of the change in length [SCALE STEEL]of a solid to its length at 0℃ for each change in temperature of a solid is called the coefficient of linear expansion
▽4J36 Typical Linear Expansion Coefficient.
T average coefficient of linear expansion ā，10-6/℃
20℃~300℃ 5.1[SCALE STEEL]
Most metals and alloys expand in volume when heated and contract in volume when cooled. However, due to its [SCALE STEEL]ferromagnetism, the Inwatt alloy has abnormal thermal expansion in a certain temperature range, and its expansion coefficient is extremely low, sometimes even zero or negative.Its characteristics are summarized as follows:
(1) Small coefficient of expansion
The average expansion coefficient of Inwa alloy is generally 1.5×10-6/℃, and the volume does not change at room temperature [SCALE STEEL]from -80℃ to +100℃.
(2) They were not strong
The carbon content of the alloy is less than 0.05%, the hardness and strength is not high, the tensile strength is about 517MPa, [SCALE STEEL]the yield strength is about 276MPa, the Vickers hardness is about 160, generally can be through cold deformation to improve the strength, in the strength is improved at the same time still has good plasticity.
(3) Low thermal conductivity
The thermal conductivity of [SCALE STEEL]watt alloys is 10W/m·K, only one-third of the thermal conductivity of 45 steel.
(4) High plasticity and toughness
The ductility, toughness, elongation, reduction of section and impact toughness are all very high. The elongation is [SCALE STEEL]δ=30~45% and the shrinkage is δ=50~70%.Impact toughness αK=130~310 J/cm2.
(5) Variations of other properties
Because of the high nickel content in the Intile alloy, the hardenability and quenchability of the steel are improved, and the gas resistance, corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the steel are improved.
4j36 due to the advantages of low expansion, is indispensable to precision instrument structure material, it is widely used in electronics industry and precision instrument industry and other areas that are sensitive [SCALE STEEL]to size requirements, such as: double metal materials, magnetic materials, measuring instruments with fixture, astronomical telescope components, optical instruments, CFRP with metal molds, antenna parts, FPD with shielding framework, high precision printing in framework, and semiconductor with a check by machining fixture, semiconductor, etc.
Incoloy®825 is a Ni-Fe-Cr austenite alloy with molybdenum, copper and titanium added.Special corrosion resistance in oxidizing and reducing [SCALE STEEL]environments.Incoloy is a registered trademark of Special Metals, Inc.
INCOLOY® alloy 825
ASTM B425[SCALE STEEL]
JIS G 4901
JIS G 4902
The 825 is resistant to corrosion in a variety of processing environments, including sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, organic acid and alkali such as sodium, potassium hydroxide, acid [SCALE STEEL]chloride, etc.
Compared with ordinary austenitic stainless steels, the nickel in alloy 825 makes it resistant to chloride stress corrosion, while molybdenum and copper make it highly resistant to corrosion in reduced environments.Chromium and molybdenum are resistant to chloride pitting and corrosion in various oxidizing environments.The addition of titanium makes the material more stable and less susceptible to sensitization [SCALE STEEL]during welding.This insensitive property allows the material to resist intergranular corrosion even when exposed to the sensitive temperature range.
Mechanical Properties Of：
825 alloy has good mechanical properties in low and medium temperature environments.At 540°C, the microstructure of[SCALE STEEL] the material will change and the ductility and impact strength will decrease significantly. Therefore, it is not suitable for applications where creep fracture resistance is a design factor.
Alloy 825 can be fully strengthened by cold working.Has good impact strength at room temperature and can maintain this strength at low temperatures.
As a typical nickel-based alloy, 825 alloy is easy to be formed and welded through technical processing.Application occasions [SCALE STEEL]for petroleum exploitation, chemical equipment, such as heat exchanger and condenser;Components used in sulfuric acid environment and acid gas containing a variety of ions;Pipelines and coolers for oil and steam;Nuclear waste disposal plant.
T4003, equivalent to the European standard 1.4003, is a practical ferritic stainless stee l, often used in place of low carbon steel. Around 2008, [SCALE STEEL]TICO introduced and developed this brand for C80B stainless steel heavy load coal trains.
CHINA GB/T 20878-2007
GB/T 4237-2015 022Cr12Ni
Ministry of Railways、TISCO T4003
AMERICA ASTM A240-15a[SCALE STEEL] S40977
GERMANY DIN EN 10088-1:2005 X2CrNi12
C ≤0.030 ≤0.030
Si ≤1.00 ≤1.00
Mn ≤1.50 1.00~2.50
P ≤0.040 ≤0.040
S ≤0.015 ≤0.015
Cr 10.5~12.5[SCALE STEEL] 11.0~13.0
Ni 0.30~1.00 0.60~1.00
N ≤0.030 ≤0.025
Ti -- 8C~0.35
≥350 ≥480 ≥20 ≤250
COLD BEND 180°d=2a -40℃AKV(J)
--[SCALE STEEL] ≥34*
The T4003 offers a range of benefits of ferritic stainless steels such as strength, corrosion and wear resistance, weldability, formability, good durability [SCALE STEEL]and lower maintenance.
In China,T4003 is mainly used for railway freight car body, the product form is plate coil, TISCO's market share accounts for more than 90%.As a good low cost stainless steel solution, the T4003 is also used in sweeps, gravel vehicles, tanks, [SCALE STEEL]chimney pipes, staircases, railings, etc.
06Cr13, the American standard 410S, is the lowest carbon content in the Cr13 martensitic stainless steel.Due to the microstructure of[SCALE STEEL] the matrix under annealing condition, it is also classified as ferritic stainless steel in a few standards.
CHINA GB/T 20878-2007 S41008 06Cr13
GB/T 24511-2009 S11306
AMERICA ASTM A240-15a S41008,410S
JAPAN JIS G 4304:2005 SUS410S
GERMANY DIN EN 10088-2:1995[SCALE STEEL] X6Cr13,1.4000
GRADE 06Cr13* 410S SUS410S 1.4000
C ≤0.08 ≤0.08 ≤0.08 ≤0.08
Si ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00
Mn ≤1.00 ≤1.00[SCALE STEEL] ≤1.00 ≤1.00
P ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.040
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.015
Cr 11.5~13.5 11.5~13.5 11.5~13.5 12.0~14.0
Ni (≤0.60) ≤0.60 (≤0.60) --
*：S41008 is listed in the table, while S11306 is slightly different in composition.
Density（g/cm3）20℃[SCALE STEEL] 7.75
Specific heat [kJ/(kg·K)] 0~100℃ 0.46
Heat conductivity [W/(m·K)] 100℃ 25.0
coefficient of linear expansion（10-6/K） 0~100℃ 10.6
specific resistance（Ω·mm2/m）20℃ 0.60
longitudinal modulus of elasticity（kN/mm2）20℃ 220
Dimensions of sample hairs（mm） ≤75
heat treating regime anneal[SCALE STEEL] 800 ~ 900 ℃ slow cooling
Or about 750℃ fast cooling
quench 950 ~ 1000 ℃ cold oil
temper 700~750℃cold oil
(quenching + tempering)
Extension strength MPa ≥345
strength of extension MPa ≥490
Percentage elongation after fracture % ≥24
Percentagereduction of area; reduction of area ≥60
The hardness of delivery HBW anneal ≤183
(1) The corrosion resistance and corrosion resistance are similar to 1Cr13 (410) and better, in low concentration of mild organic and [SCALE STEEL]inorganic acid, alkali and some chemical conditions have corrosion resistance.
(2) Good oxidation resistance, sustainable use in 705℃ environment.
(3) good plastic toughness, easy to be formed by rotation, bending and rolling.
(4) It can be welded by common fusion and resistance technology.
The main product form [SCALE STEEL]is plate, used for structural parts such as automobile muffler and exhaust system components, but also widely used in containers, heat exchangers, underground pipes, etc.
14CrMnNi2MoA is a kind of low alloy high [SCALE STEEL]strength structural steels.
BAR GJB 1951-1994
《Specification for high quality structural steel bars for aviation use》
FORGE PIECE HB 5024-1989
《Steel forgings for aviation》[SCALE STEEL]
Component Specification（GJB 1951-1994）
C Cr Ni Mo
0.11~0.17 1.20~1.60 1.40~2.00 0.20~0.40
Si Mn[SCALE STEEL] P S
0.35~0.65 0.65~0.95 ≤0.025 ≤0.015
Heat Treatment And Mechanics（GJB 1951-1994）
Dimensions of sample hairs（mm） 16
Heat treatment （℃） Quenching (oil cooling) 820~860
Tempering (air cooling) 180~220
Mechanical property Specified non-proportionality
Extension strength MPa ≥1080
yield MPa[SCALE STEEL] ≥885
Percentage elongation after fracture % ≥12
Percentagereduction of area; reduction of area % ≥55
Impact absorption work J ≥78
Hardness HBS Annealing or high tempering ≤255
Quenching + tempering 321~415
Performance and Application：
14CrMnsNi2MoA is a kind of excellent carburizing steel, which has good hardenability, high strength and impact toughness, good thermal stability, high bending fatigue strength and low notch sensitivity.After carburizing and[SCALE STEEL] quenching and low temperature tempering, the surface has a high hardness, and the heart has good strength and toughness.Medium performance in cutting and cold deformation.It is suitable for the manufacture of heavy duty and high speed transmission gear, shaft and other parts requiring surface carburizing.
HC420LA is German standard, material number is 1.0556. It is a kind of low alloy high strength steel requiring high yield strength. [SCALE STEEL]The product form is cold rolled coil.
Component Specification（DIN EN 10268-2013）
C ≤0.14 Al ≥0.015
Si ≤0.5 Ti ≤0.15
Mn ≤1.6 Nb ≤0.09
P ≤0.030[SCALE STEEL] S ≤0.025
item transverse longitudinal test piece
yield strength Rp0.2 420~520 390~500
strength of extensionRm 470~600 460~580
elongation %[SCALE STEEL] ≥17 ≥18
HC420LA has good comprehensive performance. It is mainly used to manufacture auto parts, such as chassis, internal panel,[SCALE STEEL] seat parts, etc. The processing method is cold forming.
Gr.8 is 9Ni type low carbon quenching and tempering steel, listed in the American standard of low temperature pipe A333 and low temperature heat exchanger pipe A334 two standards.Nickel is the most effective element to improve the low temperature toughness of steel -- GR.8 contains 9% Ni, which ensures its good toughness and[SCALE STEEL] high strength at very low temperature, and its service temperature can be as low as -195℃.
CHINA GB/T 18984-2016 06Ni9DG
AMERICA ASTM A333/A333M-11
ASTM A334/A334M-04a[SCALE STEEL] Grade 8
JAPAN JIS G 3460:2013
JIS G 3464:2013 STPL 690
GERMANY DIN EN 10216-4:2004 X10Ni9
GRADE Grade 8 06Ni9DG STPL 690 1.5682
C ≤0.13 ≤0.10 ≤0.13 ≤0.13
Si 0.13~0.32 0.10~0.35 0.10~0.35 0.15~0.35
Mn ≤0.90 ≤0.90[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.90 0.30~0.80
P ≤0.025 ≤0.015 ≤0.030 ≤0.020
S ≤0.025 ≤0.008 ≤0.030 ≤0.010
Ni 8.4~9.6 8.5~9.5 8.5~9.5 8.5~9.5
Mo -- -- -- ≤0.10
Cu -- -- -- ≤0.30
V -- -- -- ≤0.05
Gr.8 Heat treated to control the microstructure as follows before delivery.
① quenching + tempering
Heat evenly to 800℃±15℃;Heat preservation, the heat preservation time is proportional to the thickness of 2min/mm, and not less than 15min;Immerse in circulating water and quench.
The steel tubes were reheated evenly[SCALE STEEL] to 565-605 ℃;Heat preservation, the heat preservation time is proportional to the thickness of 2min/mm, and not less than 15min;Air cooling, or water quenching with a cooling rate of not less than 165℃/h.
(2) secondary normalizing + tempering
Heat evenly to 900℃±15℃;Heat preservation, the heat preservation time is proportional to the thickness of 2min/mm, and not less than [SCALE STEEL]15min;Air cooling.
Reheated to 790℃±15℃;Heat preservation, the heat preservation time is proportional to the thickness of 2min/mm, and not less than 15min;Then air cooling.
Heat evenly to 565-605 ℃;Heat preservation, the heat preservation time is proportional to the thickness of 2min/mm, and not less than 15min;Air cooling, or water quenching with a cooling rate of not less than 165℃/h.
strength of extension MPa ≥690
yield strength MPa ≥515
Elongation (longitudinal) % ≥22a
A. Longitudinal strip test with a standard distance of 50mm and a wall thickness of ≥8mm, or all small-size samples tested with full section.
B. Standard round sample with a standard distance of 50mm or a smaller size sample with a standard distance of 4 times the diameter.
The minimum impact test temperature of the steel tube GR.8 is -195℃.The test results are determined by the average lateral expansion value of the impact sample relative to the notch.
GR.8 is primarily used for the storage of structural materials for liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals.LNG is stored at around -162 ° C and must be made from ultra-low temperature materials.Compared with other ultra-low temperature materials, GR.8 has lower cost than stainless steel and nickel-based alloy, higher strength than aluminum alloy and better low temperature toughness, and is currently the main material for large LNG storage tanks.
GH3536 is a nickel-based superalloy with high iron content, mainly reinforced by solid solution of chromium and molybdenum, with a density [SCALE STEEL]of 8.3g/cm3.The most well-known commercial grade of the same steel is Hastelloy ® X Alloy.
CHINA GB/T 14992-2005 GH3536(GH536)
AMERICA ASTM B572-2011 UNS N06002
HAYNES HASTELLOY® X alloy
JAPAN JIS H 4551-2000 NW6002
NIPPON YAKIN NAS HX
GERMANY DIN 17744-2002 2.4665
VDM Metals[SCALE STEEL] Nicrofer®4722 Co
GRADE GH3536 N06002 NW6002 2.4665
C 0.05~0.15 0.05~0.15 0.05~0.15 0.05~0.15
Si ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00
Mn ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00
P ≤0.025 ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.020
S ≤0.015 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.015
Ni -- Remainder[SCALE STEEL] -- Other
Cr 20.5~23.0 20.5~23.0 20.5~23.0 20.5~23.0
Mo 8.0~10.0 8.0~10.0 8.0~10.0 8.0~10.0
Fe 17.0~20.0 17.0~20.0 17.0~20.0 17.0~20.0
Co 0.5~2.5 0.5~2.5 0.5~2.5 0.5~2.5
W 0.2~1.0 0.2~1.0 0.2~1.0 0.2~1.0
Al ≤0.50 -- -- ≤0.50
Ti ≤0.15 -- -- --
Cu ≤0.50 -- -- ≤0.50
B ≤0.01 -- ≤0.01 ≤0.01
GH3536 alloy under the high temperature of 1200 ℃, still has a very high strength and oxidation resistance, combined with excellent forming and welding performance, and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking performance, is widely used in gas turbine, industrial furnace, heat treatment equipment and the process of [SCALE STEEL]nuclear components, such as gas turbine combustion cylinder, burner taper pipe, transition, spray rod, distillation and the chemical industry, muffle furnace, catalyst support grille, hearth baffle, pyrolysis operation and flash drier parts of pipes, etc.
GH1139, original GH139, also expressed as 12 cr25ni16mn7nb, brand comes from the former Soviet union Э И 835, is a veteran of austenite[SCALE STEEL] steel body is strong, its density is 7.83 g/cm3, main products for the sheet and rod form.
Component Specification（GB/T 14992-2005）
C ≤0.12 Cr 23.00~26.00 Ni 15.00~18.00
Si ≤1.00 P ≤0.035 N 0.30~0.45
Mn 5.00~7.00 S ≤0.020[SCALE STEEL] B ≤0.010
The performance level of GH1139 alloy is similar to that of GH3030 alloy. It has the characteristics of good hot working plasticity, stable structure [SCALE STEEL] and friendly welding. It is suitable for making high-temperature bearing parts such as combustion chamber after stamping and welding, such as gas conduit parts made of thin plate, strip and profile working at 800~950℃ and medium stress.
Hastelloy C-22 alloy is a general Ni-Cr-Mo alloy with a density of 8.7g/cm3.Compared with the common Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, such as C-276, C-4, [SCALE STEEL]625 alloy, it has better and more comprehensive corrosion resistance.
CHINA GB/T 15007-2008 NS3308
AMERICA ASTM B462-2006
ASTM B575-2006 N06022
Special Metals INCONEL® alloy 22
Haynes International HASTELLOY® C-22®
JAPAN JIS H 4551:2000 NW6022
Nippon Yakin[SCALE STEEL] NAS NW22
GERMANY DIN 17744:2002 NiCr21Mo14W
VDM Metals VDM® Alloy 22
Nicrofer® 5621 hMoW
GRADE NS3308 N06022 NW6022 2.4602
C ≤0.015 ≤0.015 ≤0.015 ≤0.010
Si ≤0.08 ≤0.08[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.08 ≤0.08
Mn ≤0.50 ≤0.50 ≤0.50 ≤0.50
P ≤0.020 ≤0.020 ≤0.025 ≤0.025
S ≤0.020 ≤0.020 ≤0.020 ≤0.015
Ni --- Remainder --- Other
Cr 20.0~22.5 20.0~22.5 20.0~22.5 20.0~22.5
Mo 12.5~14.5 12.5~14.5 12.5~14.5 12.5~14.5
Fe 2.0~6.0 2.0~6.0 2.0~6.0 2.0~6.0
W 2.5~3.5 2.5~3.5 2.5~3.5 2.5~3.5
Co ≤2.50 ≤2.50 ≤2.50 ≤2.50
V ≤0.35 ≤0.35 ≤0.35 ≤0.35
(1) Excellent resistance to various corrosive media under oxidation and reduction conditions;It is one of the few materials that can resist the corrosion of moist chlorine gas, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide solution, and has[SCALE STEEL] significant corrosion resistance to high concentration of salt chloride solution (such as ferric chloride and copper chloride).
(2) It can also resist a variety of corrosive [SCALE STEEL]environments at a high temperature of up to 677℃.
(3)Good resistance to pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.
(4) Excellent welding performance.
Hastelloy C-22 alloy has been widely used in chemical and petrochemical fields, such as the application in the contact with chloride-containing organic components and catalytic systems.This material is especially suitable for high temperature, mixed with impurities of inorganic acids and organic acids (such as formic acid and acetic acid), sea water corrosion environment.