409Ni stainless steel is a low chromium niobium stabilized ferritic stainless steel. The addition of nickel can improve corrosion resistance and toughness in welding conditions.Compared with 430 or 304 stainless steel it does not belong to corrosion resistance or high temperature oxidation resistance material, but it is more suitable for low [SCALE STEEL]alloy corrosion resistance steel, low carbon steel and coated low carbon steel.When stainless steel 409Ni is exposed to harsh atmospheric conditions, dyeing may occur.409 Nickel alloys should only be used in aesthetically not as a primary requirement, such as in mildly corrosive conditions.The annealed 409Ni is malleable and does not hardento any significant extent during cold operation.
As a result, it can be pulled onto a wire and formed into the desired shape using most standard techniques.409Ni should not be used in low temperature [SCALE STEEL]applications below zero due to brittle transition and fracture hazards. It is a ferritic stainless steel.In automotive applications, the SS409NI has found its main application.
The 409Ni stainless steel is an ideal material for meters larger than 0.120 in. Its weldability and toughness is superior to that of the standard 409 model.The cost is relatively low.Transportation applications include automotive exhaust flanges, hopper [SCALE STEEL]bodies and discharge chutes, intermodal containers, trailers, bus frames, and dump truck bed liners.In conditions as slippery as those encountered in coal handling equipment, 409 nickel stainless steel is a more economical solution.Potential coal handling applications include chutes, hoppers, bunkers, flooring, perforated plates, sizing machines, flight conveyor grinders, vibrating screen plates, silo feeders, paddle mixers, screw feeders, fuel tank and dryer assemblies.Additional applications include noise suppression barriers, mud pipes, heat shields, cyclones, silos, belt scraper blades, screens and tanks.
Technical Data for 409Ni, UNS S40975 Stainless Steel:
C -- Mn -- P -- S -- Si -- Cr -- Ni -- N -- Fe
0.03 -- 1 -- 0.04 -- 0.03 -- 1 -- 10.5-11.7 -- 0.50=1.0 -- 0.03 -- Rest
TENSILE STRENGTH(MPA) -- YIELD STRENGTH(MPA) -- ELONGATION(%)
415 -- 276 -- 20
0Cr16Ni6 is a precipitated hardening stainless steel with controlled phase transition. After solution treatment, the microstructure is about 40% martensite, 60% austenite and a small amount of δferrite. After cold treatment [SCALE STEEL]or cold deformation, the microstructure is basically transformed into martensite.
Equivalent Grades with 0Cr16Ni6:
⑴AMERICA：Croloy 16-6 PH
Chemical Composition(%) for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Properties for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Specific Heat Capacity [J/(kg·℃)]
Heat Conductivity [W/(m·℃)]
Coefficient Of Linear Expansion (10-6/℃)
Heat Treatment System for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
There are two ways of martensite transformation after 0Cr16Ni6 solution treatment: cryogenic (R) treatment and cold (C) treatment. [SCALE STEEL]After treatment, the martensite volume in the treated tissue increases to about 90%, and the rest is austenite.
After the whole heat treatment, the hardness of 0Cr16Ni6 at room temperature: 40~48HRC.
Heat Treatment Status for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
⑴RH Condition：Solid Solution Treatment + Cryogenic Treatment + Tempering.
⑵CH Condition：Solution Treatment + Cold Rolling Or Cold Drawing + Tempering.
Heat Treatment Process
⑴ Solid Solution Treatment: Electric Furnace 1000±10℃×30min, < 30℃ Cooling Water;
⑵ Cryogenic Treatment: -70~-80℃×2h;
⑶ Tempering Treatment: [SCALE STEEL]420±10℃×1h, Air Cooling.
Reference Hardness for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
Scheme of Heat Treatment
Solid Solution+Subzero Treatment
Solid Solution+Subzero Treatment+Tempering
Performance Characteristics for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
⑴ High strength, low notch sensitivity and insensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement.
⑵ The uniform corrosion resistance of 431 was similar to that of 431;Good stress corrosion resistance;The intergranular corrosion resistance can meet the technical requirements of "L" method when the intergranular [SCALE STEEL]corrosion test is carried out according to "Test Method for Intergranular Corrosion Tendency of Stainless and Acid Resistant Steels".
(3) It has stable oxidation resistance in the air medium below 420℃ and in the atmosphere of aviation fuel combustion products.
(4) Thermal processing temperature range: 1100~900℃;The cold working properties of austenitic stainless steels are between that of martensitic stainless steels.
⑸ Good welding performance, [SCALE STEEL]parts need to be RH treatment after welding.
Applications for 0Cr16Ni6 Stainless:
0Cr16Ni6 is a kind of martensitic-austenite double-phase stainless steel with high strength, high toughness and good corrosion resistance. [SCALE STEEL]It is suitable for making aircraft and engine stress components working below 450℃, as well as other important components working in atmosphere, acetic acid and salt medium.
W6Mo5Cr4V2Al, referred to as 501, also known as M2Al, is on the basis of W6Mo5Cr4V2 carbon content from 0.08% ~ 0.90% to 1.05% ~ 1.15%, and add 1% Al and the formation of superhard high-speed steel, is a typical grade of aluminum high-speed steel.
High speed steel containing aluminum is an original [SCALE STEEL]steel in China, characterized by "no cobalt" and "low price".Because cobalt resources are scarce, replacing cobalt with aluminum is a feasible and favorable plan in China.Austrian BOHLER steel mill developed 501 similar steel class S620 based on the research of Chinese counterparts.
Chemical Composition(%) for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Standard GB/T 9943-2008(High Speed Tool Steel)
Grade W6Mo5Cr4V2Al W6Mo5Cr4V2
C 1.05~1.15 0.80~0.90
Si 0.20~0.60 0.20~0.45
Mn 0.15~0.40 0.15~0.40
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030
Cr 3.80~4.40 3.80~4.40
V 1.75~2.20 1.75~2.20
W 5.50~6.75[SCALE STEEL] 5.50~6.75
Mo 4.50~5.50 4.50~5.50
Al 0.80~1.20 --
Heat Treatment（GB/T 9943-2008）for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Hardness under Annealed Treatment ≤269HBW
Quenching Salt Bath Furnace 1200~1220℃
Box-Type Furnace 1230~1240℃
Quenching Medium Oil or Salt Bath
Tempering 550~570℃ for 1h[SCALE STEEL]
Tempering Times Twice
Example Case for Heat Treatment Process for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
Preheating with Low Tem 450~500℃ for 1~1.5h
Preheating with Mid Tem 850~900℃，Heating Time According To The Effective Section 20~25s/mm
Heating by Quenching 1210±10℃，Heating Time According To The Effective Section 15~20s/mm
Cooling by Steps 580~620℃，Neutral Salt Bath[SCALE STEEL]
Air Cooling When The Furnace Is Cooled To 600℃, The Furnace Is Cooled To Room Temperature
Tempering with High Tem 550±10℃ for 2~3h
Tempering with MId Tem 530±10℃ for 2~3h
Properties for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
The hardness of 501 is 67~69HRC at room temperature and 54~55HRC at 600℃, making it more than W18Cr4V and comparable to superhard high-speed steel M42. The toughness and grinding performance are better than vanadium superhard high-speed [SCALE STEEL]steel.
Research shows that compared with W9Mo3Cr4V (W9) material, 501 price is the same, but 501 material tool processing efficiency increases 30%, cutting speed increases 58%, tool life extends 2~3 times.Compared with W2Mo9Cr4VCo8 (M42) material, the machining efficiency and cutting performance of 501 tool are basically the same, but the [SCALE STEEL]price of M42 is 3 times that of 501.
The defects of 501 are high vanadium content, poor grinding workability, strong overheating sensitivity, oxidation and decarbonization tendency, so protective measures should be taken during hot processing and heat treatment.
Applications for W6Mo5Cr4V2Al (M2Al), 501 Aluminum High Speed Steel:
The high speed steel 501 has the advantages of high hardness, wear resistance, high red hardness, high temperature hardness, good thermoplasticity and so on. It is made into cutting tools such as plane cutter, hob, broaching tool and so on.[SCALE STEEL] It has a good effect when it is used to process high-temperature alloy, ultra-high strength steel and other difficult cutting materials, and it is also used to make high load cold working die, such as cold extrusion die.
45# steel is carbon structural steel with carbon content of 0.45%. It is characterized by cheap price, good cutting performance, high hardness after quenching, [SCALE STEEL]good strength and toughness and certain wear resistance after quenching and tempering treatment. It is widely used in the manufacture of structural parts and medium and low grade plastic molds.
"45# steel" is a popular name, the symbol is generally[SCALE STEEL] written as "45#".Actually GB standard steel number is "45", it is not a serial number, read as "45# steel" is not very accurate.
The similar grades of 45 steel are S45C(JIS) and 1045(AISI).In addition, China's metallurgical technology standards have SM45 marks specifically [SCALE STEEL]indicated the use of plastic mold.Compared with 45 steel, SM45 steel has lower phosphorus and sulfur content and better steel purity.
Standards GB/T 699 Grades 45
C 0.42~0.50 Cr ≤0.25
Si 0.17~0.37 Ni ≤0.30
Mn 0.50~0.80 Cu ≤0.25
P,S P S
(45) ≤0.035 ≤0.035
(45A) ≤0.030 ≤0.030
(45E) ≤0.025[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.020
Standards YB/T 094 AISI JIS G4051
Grades SM45 1045 S45C
C 0.42~0.48 0.43~0.50 0.42~0.48
Si 0.17~0.37 -- 0.15~0.35
Mn 0.50~0.80 0.60~0.90 0.60~0.90
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.050[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.035
Mechanical Property（GB/T 699-1999）
Sample Size（mm） 25
Suggested Heat Treatment（℃） Normalizing 850
Mechanical Property Tensile StrengthMPa ≥600
Yield Strength MPa ≥355
Elongation%[SCALE STEEL] ≥16
Reduction of Area% ≥40
Impact Test Value J ≥39
HBS Before Heat Treatment ≤229
Note: For steel larger than 80mm, the elongation and section shrinkage after fracture are allowed to be reduced by 2% and 5% respectively compared with the above table.
Heat Treatment and Hardness
Recommended quenching process specification: [SCALE STEEL]quenching temperature is 820~860℃, water or oil cold, hardness ≥50HRC.
The recommended tempering process specification: tempering temperature is 500~560℃, air cooling, hardness is 25~33HRC.
Tempering in this temperature range is a tempering treatment.The strength, plasticity and toughness of 45 steel are well balanced by tempering and tempering, and the comprehensive performance is good, which can adapt to the environment of alternating load.
After tempering and tempering, 45 steel has [SCALE STEEL]low surface hardness and no wear resistance.So commonly used quenching and tempering + surface hardening to improve the surface hardness of parts.
Relationship between Temperature and Hardness under Tempering Treatment:
Tem Quenching Unit（℃）
200 300 400 500 550 600
HRC 57 55 50 41 33 26 22
Note: ① quenching is water quenching at 840℃.(2) 45 steel after quenching without tempering, hardness is greater than HRC55 [SCALE STEEL](up to HRC62) is qualified.The maximum hardness of practical application is HRC55 (HRC58 for high frequency quenching).
5CrNiMo is a kind of hot die steel.Often referred to as 5CrMnMo.Both are low alloy steels (alloy content ≤5%), low carbon content, have good hardenability[SCALE STEEL] and impact toughness, used for the die with low temperature and large impact load, such as hammer forging die.
▶ 5CrNiMo、5CrMnMo Chemical Composition Comparation:
Grades 5CrNiMo 5CrMnMo
C 0.50~0.60 0.50~0.60
Si ≤0.40 0.25~0.60
Mn 0.50~0.80 1.20~1.60
Cr 0.50~0.80 0.60~0.90
Ni 1.40~1.80 ≤0.25
Mo 0.15~0.30 0.15~0.30
Cu ≤0.25 ≤0.25
5CrMnMo replaces nickel with manganese, which is the joint nickel steel of 5CrNiMo. Its strength is slightly higher than that of 5CrNiMo, but its hardenability and impact toughness are obviously lower, and its heat resistance fatigue performance [SCALE STEEL]is also slightly inferior.According to the different performance characteristics of the two, 5CrNiMo is mostly used in the manufacture of medium-sized (die height greater than 300mm) or complex cavity hot forging dies;And 5CrMnMo is suitable for making small forging dies (die height less than 300mm).
5CrNiMo has good toughness and hardenability, and is insensitive to size effect.High strength can be maintained under 400℃, but the strength drops sharply above 400℃. For example, when the temperature rises to 550℃, the yield point drops by nearly half compared with room temperature.
Hot work die steels can be divided into low heat resistant steels (350 ~ 370℃), medium heat resistant steels (550 ~ 600℃) and high heat[SCALE STEEL] resistant steels (580 ~ 650℃) according to different working temperatures.According to this definition, 5CrNiMo is a low heat resistance and high toughness hot work die steel.
There are two standards for 5CrNiMo steel in China: GB/T 24594-2009 (high quality alloy die steel) and GB/T 1299-2014 (die steel).
▶ 5CrNiMo’s Equivalent Materials in Different Standards
Standard GB AISI JIS W-Nr
Grades 5CrNiMo L6 SKT4 1.2713 1.2714
Si ≤0.40 0.10
0.80[SCALE STEEL] 0.60
P ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.020 ≤0.030 ≤0.030
0.30 ≤0.50 0.35
V (≤0.20) —[SCALE STEEL] 0.05
▶ Popular Brands for 5CrNiMo
DAIDO HITACHI KOSHUHA ASSAB BÖHLER
GFA DM KTV ALVAR 14 W500
▶ 5CrNiMo’s Hardness
The annealing (or normalizing) hardness of 5CrNiMo is in the range of HBW 197~241, and it can be pre-hardened to HRC 38~43 for delivery, [SCALE STEEL]and its quenching hardness can reach HRC 53~58.
Spring steel refers to steel specially used to manufacture springs and elastic elements because of its elasticity under quenching and tempering [SCALE STEEL]conditions.The elasticity of a steel depends on its ability to elastically deform, that is, to withstand a certain load within a specified range without permanent deformation after the load is removed.
65Mn is a typical spring steel with high strength, high hardenability, low decarburization tendency, but it is sensitive to overheating, easy to produce [SCALE STEEL]quenching cracks and temper brittleness.Its cutting performance is also good, in the annealing state, the relative machinability of 70%.
As low manganese spring steel (GB/T 1222), 65Mn is used for manufacturing large flat spring, cushion spring, spring spring, also suitable for manufacturing [SCALE STEEL]spring ring, valve spring, clutch spring, brake spring cold drawn wire (≤7mm), cold coil spring, etc.
High elastic limit, yield strength and fatigue strength, and high hardenability, good cutting characteristics, also makes 65Mn become the main material for[SCALE STEEL] manufacturing diamond circular saw blade.
In addition to the use of spring, 65Mn is another identity of carbon structural steel (GB/T 699), used in the field of machine processing, is a typical [SCALE STEEL]material of cold work die steel, among which round steel is the most widely used field.
STANDARDS GB/T 1222 ASTM A689
GRADES 65Mn 1566
C 0.62~0.70 0.60~0.71
Si 0.17~0.37 --
Mn 0.90~1.20 0.85~1.15
P ≤0.035[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.040
S ≤0.035 ≤0.050
Cr ≤0.25 --
Ni ≤0.25 --
Cu ≤0.25 --
MECHANICAL PROPERTY（GB/T 1222-2007）
SAMPLE SIZE（mm） 10
HEAT TREATMENT QUENCHING TEM 830℃
QUENCHING MEDIUM MEDIA OIL
TEMPERING TEM 540℃
MECHANICAL PROPERTY TENSILE STRENGTH MPa[SCALE STEEL] ≥980
YIELD STRENGTH MPa ≥785
ELONGATION % ≥8
REDUCTION OF AREA % ≥30
HBW HOT ROLLED ≤302
COLD BEND + HEAT TREATMENT ≤321
38CrMoAl is an alloy structural steel characterized by high aluminum composition, which is generally used after quenching and nitriding.After nitriding, 38CrMoAl has high surface hardness, wear resistance and fatigue strength, and has [SCALE STEEL]good heat resistance and corrosion.
The characteristic of 38CrMoAl nitriding is that the speed is fast and the depth of nitriding layer can be obtained. However, the brittleness of the nitriding layer is relatively large, so it is not suitable for making parts that bear great impact.
STANDARD GB/T 3077 SAE 6470 JIS G4053 DIN EN 10085
GRADE 38CrMoAl 135 Mod
UNS K24065 SACM645
C 0.35~0.42 0.38~0.43 0.40~0.50 0.38~0.45
Si 0.20~0.45 0.20~0.40 0.15~0.50 ≤0.40
Mn 0.30~0.60 0.50~0.80[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.60 0.40~0.70
P ≤0.035 ≤0.025 ≤0.030 ≤0.025
S ≤0.035 ≤0.025 ≤0.030 ≤0.035
Cr 1.35~1.65 1.40~1.80 1.30~1.70 1.50~1.80
Mo 0.15~0.25 0.30~0.40 0.15~0.35 0.20~0.35
Al 0.70~1.10 0.95~1.30 0.70~1.20 0.80~1.20
TYPES TEM ℃ COOLING HRC
ANNEALING 840~870 FURNACE COOLING ≤229HB
NORMALIZING 930~970 AIR COOLING --
QUENCHING 940 OIL ＞56
TEMPERING 150~200 WATER OR OIL[SCALE STEEL] 51~56
300~400 WATER OR OIL 45~51
500~550 WATER OR OIL 35~39
600~650 WATER OR OIL 28~31
The process flow of nitriding parts is generally: forging → normalizing (annealing) → rough machining → tempering and tempering → finishing [SCALE STEEL]machining → de-stress → fine grinding → nitriding → fine grinding → assembly.
The purpose of 38CrMoAl nitriding treatment is mainly for wear resistance.After nitriding, its hardness is as high as HV800, the hardened layer [SCALE STEEL]can reach 0.30mm ~ 0.5mm.
38CrMoAl is mainly used in the manufacture of parts with precise size, requiring high wear resistance and fatigue strength, and not subjected to large impact load, such as cylinder liner, bottom sleeve, gear, bolts, shaft and rotor, etc.
In addition, because Al and Cr elements can form a dense passivation film on the surface of steel, so 38CrMoAl is also a kind of seawater [SCALE STEEL]corrosion resistant steel.Its seamless steel pipe is the most ideal pipeline and processing material for transporting water, oil and gas and seawater containing medium in coastal power plants, coastal oil fields, coastal natural gas and petrochemical plants.
6Cr4W3Mo2VNb steel, namely 65Nb steel, is a common matrix steel, which is jointly developed by Huazhong Institute of Technology [SCALE STEEL]and Daye Steel Plant.65Nb steel is made of high speed steel W6Mo5Cr4V2 with composition adjustment and a small amount of Nb added.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION（%）（GB/T 1299-2014）
C 0.60~0.70 Cr 3.80~4.40
Si ≤0.40 W 2.50~3.50
Mn ≤0.40 Mo 1.80~2.50
P ≤0.030 V 0.80~1.20
S ≤0.030 Nb 0.20~0.35
① Isothermal Annealing
Annealing process of 65NB steel: heating at 860±10℃, holding for 3~4h;The furnace was cooled to 740±10℃ and held for 5~6h.The furnace is cooled to below 500℃ and the furnace is cooled.After annealing, the hardness is less [SCALE STEEL]than 241Hbs, and the structure is spherical pearlite.The hardenability of steel is higher, Ø 50 mm sample in air hardening, Ø 80 mm can be hardening in the oil.
② Quenching Specification
SCHEMES I II III
REQUESTS GOOD TOUGHNESS GOOD WEAR RESISTANCE NORMAL
PRE-HEATING TEM℃ 840 840 840
QUENCHING TEM℃ 1080~
COOLING METHODS OIL COOLING TO 20~60℃，
OR 150~200℃ AND THEN AIR COOLING
HRC ≥61 ≥61 ≥61
③Tempering Specification：Tempered Tem540~580℃，Twice，1~2h per Time，Harness≥56HRC。
Temperature’s Relationship with Hardness(Tempering)
Quenching Tem→ 1080℃ 1120℃ 1160℃
Tempering Tem↓ HardnessHRC↓
200℃ 61.3 61.4 61.5
300℃ 58.0 58.5 59.0
400℃ 58.0 59.0 59.5
450℃ 59.4 59.9 60.3
500℃ 60.1 61.4 61.8
520℃ 60.1 62.3 62.6
540℃ 60.2 62.2 62.5
560℃ 58.5 60.4 61.5
580℃ 58.3 60.3 60.5
600℃ 55.5 57.0 58.5
④ Surface Strengthening (Nitriding)
In order to further improve the wear resistance, the 65NB steel mold can be treated with gas soft nitriding or ion nitriding surface strengthening treatment.
Gas soft nitride can be at 520~530℃, [SCALE STEEL]2.5~3.5h, using methanol and ammonia (methanol and ammonia ratio is 1:1).
Ion nitriding can be done at 500~540℃, with ammonia as nitriding medium, and the time is 30~60min.
The basic composition of 65NB steel is similar to that of HSS, and the compressive yield strength is slightly lower than that of HSS, but the bending strength, especially the toughness, is much higher than that of HSS.Because there is no excess carbide and niobium is added into the steel, it plays the role of refining grain.Therefore, [SCALE STEEL]it has high toughness and fatigue strength.Compared with the steel without niobium, the bending strength, impact toughness and fracture toughness are increased by 25%, more than doubled and 20% respectively.
65 nb is a strong combination of steel grade, suitable for making complicated shape, large impact load or cold work mould size is larger, often used to replace T10, Cr12MoV, W6Mo5Cr4V2 make Allen for the multi-station cold heading [SCALE STEEL]machine, punch, philips light punch, bolt trimming die, cold heading bolt top die, steel plate spring punch punch, bolt pressure Angle of intensive, flat round head die, ring cold die, etc.
S-135 (00Cr13Ni5Mo), 04Cr13Ni5Mo, F6Nm, SCS5, 1.4313 Super Martensitic Stainless Steel- SCALE STEEL.
"Super martensitic stainless steel" improvements of martensite stainless steel smelting process, reduce the carbon content, increase the nickel molybdenum alloy elements, performance is superior to the conventional martensitic stainless steel, not only has good corrosion resistance, weldability, and have the characteristics of [SCALE STEEL]high strength and low temperature toughness good, in hydropower, mining equipment, chemical equipment, food industry, transportation, and high temperature pulp production equipment in areas such as highly potential applications.
S-135 (00Cr13Ni5Mo), namely 04Cr13Ni5Mo, is an ultra-low carbon martensitic stainless steel developed on the basis of CA-6nm cast steel, [SCALE STEEL]which is a typical type of super martensitic stainless steel.
CHINA TISCO 00Cr13Ni5Mo
GB/T 4237-2015 04Cr13Ni5Mo
JB/T 7349-2002 ZG06Cr13Ni5Mo
USA ASTM A182-10a F6NM，S41500
JAPAN JIS G 3214:2009 SUS F6NM
JIS G 5121:2003 SCS6
GEMANY DIN EN 10088-2:2005 X3CrNiMo13-4
GRADE S-135 04Cr13Ni5Mo
C ≤0.03 ≤0.05 ≤0.05
Si ≤0.60 ≤0.60 ≤0.70
Mn ≤0.80 0.50~1.00 ≤1.50
P ≤0.035 ≤0.030 ≤0.040
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030 ≤0.015
Cr 13.0~14.0 11.5~14.0 12.0~14.0
Ni 4.0~6.0 3.5~5.5 3.5~4.5
Mo 0.5~1.0 0.5~1.0 0.3~0.7
N -- -- ≥0.02
S-135 steel abandoned the strengthening [SCALE STEEL]means of high carbon martensite and forming carbides, and took the formation of low carbon martensite with high toughness and the addition and strengthening of nickel and molybdenum alloy elements as the main strengthening means.Through proper heat treatment, it has the composite structure of low carbon lamellar martensite and reversed austenite, so that it not only retains the high strength level, but also has good toughness and weldability.In [SCALE STEEL]addition, the steel also has excellent erosion resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, can meet the water conservancy project flow parts to bear sediment erosion requirements for a long time.
S-135 steel is mainly used for high strength load-bearing parts that need to be welded.The most common is as a hydroelectric steel, used for the manufacture of water turbine equipment abrasion resistance runner and runner lower ring;In the petroleum industry, used as CO2, H2S corrosion resistance and on-site welding [SCALE STEEL]pipeline;In the nuclear industry, it is used in PWR 2, 3 stage auxiliary pump drive shaft and control rod drive mechanism.
630, S17400, 17-4pH, 1.4542, 05Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb Precipitation Hardened Martensite Stainless Steel- SCALE STEEL.
The Martensite represents steel. It is a ruggediable stainless steel with good corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength through different heat [SCALE STEEL]treatments.
CHINA GB/T 20878-2007 05Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb
AMERICA ASTM A564-2009 630，S17400
AK Steel 17-4 PH®[SCALE STEEL]
JAPAN JIS G4303：2005 SUS 630
GERMANY DIN EN 10088-3：2014 X5CrNiCuNb16-4，1.4542
GRADE S51740 630 SUS630 1.4542
C ≤0.07 ≤0.07 ≤0.07 ≤0.07
Si ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤0.70
Mn ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.00 ≤1.50
P ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.040 ≤0.040
S ≤0.030 ≤0.030[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.030 ≤0.030
Cr 15.0~17.5 15.0~17.5 15.0~17.5 15.0~17.0
Ni 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00
Cu 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00 3.00~5.00
Nb 0.15~0.45 Nb+Ta：
0.15~0.45 0.15~0.45 5×C~0.45
Mo -- -- -- ≤0.60
Heat Treatment:(GB/T 1220-2007)
HEAT TREATMENT RP0.2
(MPa) A(%) Z(%) HARDNESS
SOLID SOLUTION -- -- -- -- ≤363 ≤38
PRECIPITATION HARDENING 480℃
AGING 1180 1310 10 40 ≥375 ≥40
AGING[SCALE STEEL] 1000 1070 12 45 ≥331 ≥35
AGING 865 1000 13 45 ≥302 ≥31
AGING 725 930 16 50 ≥277 ≥28
Note: The classification of heat treatment system in American standard is more detailed: H900, H925, H1025, H1075, H1100, H1150, [SCALE STEEL]H1150M, and H1150D. The four blue characters correspond to the four seasons in the above table respectively.
(1) Good cold, hot processing, welding and casting properties.
(2) Mechanical properties can be improved through heat treatment, tensile strength up to 1100~1300MPa.
(3) Corrosion resistance is better than 400 series stainless steel;In most environments, corrosion resistance is comparable to 304;In [SCALE STEEL]petrochemical industry, food industry, paper industry and other industries, corrosion resistance is the same as 304L grade;In the Marine environment, the 630 is easy to be corroded by seawater and is only suitable for offshore platform.
(4)At a temperature up to 316 C, the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties remain good.
630 stainless steel is suitable for medium corrosion resistance or super high strength applications, such as: aerospace industrial [SCALE STEEL]parts, nuclear industrial equipment, food processing equipment, chemical processing equipment, petroleum refining equipment, mold parts, etc.