HRC (Rockwell hardness), an academic concept put forward by S.P.Rockwell in 1921, is the hardness value of metal materials measured by rockwell [SCALE STEEL]hardness tester. This value has no unit and is represented only by the code "HR".
HV- Suitable for microscopic analysis. Vickers hardness (HV) is obtained by pressing the material surface with a load of less than 120kg and [SCALE STEEL]a square cone diamond inset with a tip Angle of 136°. The load value is divided by the surface area of the material indentation pit, which is the Vickers hardness (HV).
A, hardness HRC standard: Rockwell hardness HRA, HRB, HRC in A, B, C for three different standards. They are called [SCALE STEEL]rulers A, B and C.
1, HRA is the hardness obtained by 60Kg load and 120° diamond cone pressing device, used for high hardness materials. For example, cemented carbide.
2. HRB is the hardness obtained by using 100Kg load and 1.59mm diameter hardened steel ball for medium hardness materials. [SCALE STEEL]For example: annealed steel, cast iron, etc.
3, HRC is the hardness obtained by 150Kg load and 120° diamond cone pressing device, used for high hardness materials. For example, hardened steel.
Two, hardness HRC related introduction:
This value has no unit and is represented only by the code "HR". Hardness is the ability of a material to resist penetration. The most common way to test the hardness of steel is to use a file on the edge of the workpiece and determine its hardness by the depth of the scratches on the surface. This method is called filing, and it's not very scientific.
Hardness tester is very accurate to test, is a common method of modern hardness test. The most common test is the Rockwell[SCALE STEEL] hardness test. Rockwell hardness tester uses the depth of the diamond into the metal to determine the hardness of the metal, the deeper the depth, the less hardness.
15CrMoR steel plate is used for pressure vessel. It is a kind of medium temperature hydrogen resistant steel, 15CrMoR is Chinese grade name, [SCALE STEEL]which is equivalent with EN10028-2 13CrMo4-5 alloy steel.
15 CrMoR Steel Plate
Pressure Vessel Building
Normalizing and Tempering
15 CrMoR Steel Plate
"15" is 0.15% of the carbon content
"Cr" is the composition contains a certain chemical element - chromium
"Mo" is the composition contains a [SCALE STEEL]certain chemical element - molybdenum
"R" is the first letter of the container
15CrMoR, heat treatment is often adopted as normalizing and tempering
When under the temperature of 550℃, 15CrMoR has high durable strength.
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo
0.12～0.18 0.15～0.40 0.40～0.70 ≤0.030 ≤0.030 0.80～1.20 0.45～0.60
Steel Plate Status Mechanical and[SCALE STEEL] Cold Bend Properties
T（mm) Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elongation(%) Tem Impact Test Value Cold Bending Test 180 °b=2a
N+T 6～60 450-590 ≥295 ≥19 20 ≥31 d=3a
>100-150 440-580 ≥255
Mechanical Property Under High Temperature:
Steel Plate Status T(MM) Yield Strength Under Different Tem(no less than) [SCALE STEEL]
Steel Plate Status 20～60 240 225 210 200 189 179 174
>60～100 220 210 196 186 176 167 162
>60～150 210 199 185 175 165 156 150
ASTM GRADE：UNS S31254
EU GRADE：W.-Nr. 1.4547
ASTM STANDARD：ASTM A240/ASME SA-240[SCALE STEEL]、ASTM A276、ASTM A182/ASME SA-182、ASTM A312/ASMES A312
254SMO is one kind of super austenitic stainless steel. Because of its high molybdenum content, it has high resistance to spot corrosion and crevice corrosion. This brand of stainless steel has been developed for use in halide containing environments such as sea water. 254SMO also has good resistance to uniform corrosion. Especially in the acid containing halide, the steel is superior to ordinary stainless steel. Its C contains <0.03%, so called pure austenitic stainless steel (<0.01% is also called super austenitic stainless steel). Super stainless steel is a kind of special stainless steel, first of all, different from ordinary stainless steel in chemical composition, refers to a kind of high alloy stainless steel [SCALE STEEL]containing high nickel, high chromium, high molybdenum. One of the more famous steels is 254SMo containing 6%Mo. This kind of steel has very good local corrosion resistance, and has good pitting resistance (PI≥40) and good stress corrosion resistance under the condition of seawater, aeration, crevice and low-speed scouring. It is the substitute material for Ni-based alloy and titanium alloy. Secondly, in the performance of high temperature resistance or corrosion resistance, has more excellent high temperature resistance or corrosion resistance, is irreplaceable 304 stainless steel. In addition, from the classification of stainless steel, special stainless steel metallographic structure is a stable austenite metallographic structure.
Because this special stainless steel is a kind of high alloy material, so in the manufacturing process is quite complex, generally people can only rely on the traditional process to make this special stainless steel, such as perfusion, forging, calendering and so on.
Main ingredients: 254 smo carbon (C) 0.02 or less, manganese (Mn) of 1.00 or less, nickel (Ni) 17.5 ~ 18.5, silicon (Si) of 0.8 or less phosphorus [SCALE STEEL](P) of 0.03 or less, sulfur (S) of 0.01 or less, chromium (Cr) 19.5 ~ 20.5, copper (Cu) 0.5 ~ 1.0, molybdenum (Mo) 6.0 ~ 6.5
National standards: UNS S31254, DIN/EN 1.4547, ASTM A280, ASME SA-240
Supporting welding material: ErnicRMO-3 wire, ENICRMO-3 electrode
1. Ocean: Marine construction of Marine environment, seawater desalination, mariculture, seawater heat exchange, etc.
2. Environmental protection: thermal power plant flue gas desulfurization device, wastewater treatment, etc.
3. Energy: nuclear power generation, [SCALE STEEL]comprehensive utilization of coal, tidal power generation, etc.
4. Petrochemical industry: refining, chemical and chemical equipment, etc.
5. Food: salt making, soy sauce brewing, etc.
6. High concentration of chloride ion environment: paper industry, various bleaching devices
High Temperature Resistance:
1. Extensive field experiments and extensive experience in use have shown that 254SMO has very high create-corrosion resistance in seawater, even at slightly higher temperatures, and only a few types of stainless steel have this property.
2. The corrosion resistance of 254SMO in acidic and oxidizing halide solutions, such as those used in paper bleaching, is comparable to[SCALE STEEL] that of nickel base alloys and titanium alloys, which are the most resistant.
3. Due to its high nitrogen content, 254SMO has higher mechanical strength than other types of austenitic stainless steels. In addition, 254SMO has high ductility and impact strength as well as good weldability.
4. The high molybdenum content of 254SMO enables it to have a higher oxidation rate during annealing, resulting in a rougher surface after pickling than ordinary stainless steel. But this has no adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of the steel.
Chemical Composition for 254SMO, UNS S31254 Super Austenitice Stainless Steel:
254SMO Density：8.24g/cm3， Melting Point：1320-1390 ℃，Magnetism：None, Hardness：182-223（HB）
Mould copper tube is an accessory used for casting steel caster, which is caused by molten steel directly cast in mould copper tube. In order to solve the working process of the copper pipe and the cooling of the solidified shell alternately contact and separation, crystallizer copper tube for bending to one side of a square or rectangular copper pipe, copper pipe inner cavity from top to bottom mouth for conical, copper[SCALE STEEL] pipe inner cavity from top to bottom mouth for taper section of the double cone or three or more cone cone, or parabolic shape of inner chamber, in or on the part of the taper is greater than the lower segment or part of the taper. Preferably the taper of the face is greater than that of the arc. Avoid the air gap between the blank shell and the inner wall of the copper tube in the process of work, more in line with the change law of the shrinkage of the blank shell.
High Efficiency Square Billet Caster Mould Copper Tube
The shape of mould copper tube in high efficiency billet caster is designed according to the solidification characteristics of continuous casting billet. Two aspects are mainly considered: first, due to the high heat flow density and heat concentration near the meniscus, the amount of heat deformation of the copper tube of mold[SCALE STEEL] is heated. The second is the shrinkage of billet shell in the solidification process. The design principle is that the mold copper tube cavity shape is consistent with the law of solidification shell shrinkage, reduce the air gap thermal resistance.
Characteristics Of Copper Tube Of Explosive Mold
Mold copper tube with taper can be made by imitation processing or pressure forming method with inner core and outer mold. Imitation processing will destroy the copper structure and affect the service life. Special processing equipment is needed to process complex taper, which increases the manufacturing cost. [SCALE STEEL]Pressure molding will produce larger cutting head and tail, copper recovery rate is low. The explosive mold copper tube can be made into multi-taper and small corner of the inner cavity, which is especially conducive to the repair of the scrapped old mold.
Main Characteristics Of Copper Tube Material Of High Efficiency Continuous Casting Mould
High efficiency continuous casting crystallization equipment quality requirements are good thermal conductivity, high recrystallization temperature, thermal fatigue resistance, high strength, good wear resistance, long service life, high efficiency continuous casting mold copper tube material is the main characteristics of the copper tube material is the best comprehensive performance of the above performance.
Introduction of Mold:
Hot Top Crystallizer/ Mold:
The surface quality of the cast billet is largely determined by the uniformity of the green shell at the meniscus surface, and the uniformity of [SCALE STEEL]the green shell brightness is determined by the uniformity of heat flux and heat transfer at the meniscus surface. The high heat flux density and the rapid growth of the green shell will increase the depth of vibration mark, and at the same time make the green shell shrink in advance, and enhance the uneven thickness of the green shell. Local depression, coarsening of the structure, obvious crack sensitivity. Therefore, low thermal conductivity materials are embedded in the meniscus area of the crystallizer to reduce the heat flow density and delay the shrinkage of the billet shell, that is, the hot top crystallizer. The experimental results show that the casting speed of low carbon steel is 1.3m/min, and the heat flux at menscus [SCALE STEEL]is 2MW/m2 for common mold and 0.5MW/m2 for hot top mold. The heat flow is reduced by 75% and the vibration mark is reduced by 30%, and the surface quality is improved obviously.
Spray mold is to spray water cooling instead of pipe mold isolation joint, that is, spray water from the nozzle directly sprayed onto the copper tube of mold to achieve cooling. The cooling efficiency is high and the water saving effect is remarkable. Spray mold structure is simple, low sealing requirements, to avoid the water slot mold copper pipe corner cooling strength is not adjustable, cooling strength is relatively weak, temperature distribution is not uniform and other problems. Spray mould has been widely used in billet caster. Theoretically, spray mold can use common cooling water, but in the production practice, the fouling, nozzle blockage and other problems caused by accidents affect the use of spray mold.
"Slotted" mold and spray mold are tube mold. "Water slot type" crystallizer is composed of copper tube of crystallizer and a water sleeve, which is cooled by water slot formed between copper tube of crystallizer and water sleeve. [SCALE STEEL] "Water slot type" crystallizer is stable in use and not easy to block. At present, the mold with narrow water slit less than 4mm is widely used in efficient continuous casting to improve the flow rate of cooling water and cooperate with parabolic taper copper pipe, which has achieved good results.
Slab On-Line Broadening Crystallizer:
In order to meet the needs of producing various specifications of billets and shorten the time of mold replacement, mold width adjustment can be adjusted online. The slab online width-adjusting mold means that the two narrow edges of the mold can move inward or outward in small steps for many times until the width is adjusted to a predetermined width, and the width of the mold can be adjusted in the production process. In order to produce billets of various specifications, the width of the mold has to be changed. Mould on-line width adjustment can continuously cast billets of different width and size, saving downtime and improving production efficiency; It can reduce the loss of [SCALE STEEL]cutting head and tail of billet and improve the yield. Molten steel of similar composition can be cast without stopping.
Explosively Formed Mold Water Jacket:
With the development of high efficiency continuous casting, high efficiency narrow slot water jacket mold has been widely used at home and abroad. The precision and form of the guide water jacket are highly required for narrow slot water jacket mold. The deviation of water joints on four sides of mold will have a great influence on water velocity, resulting in uneven cooling on four sides. It is difficult to completely [SCALE STEEL]eliminate the influence of welding seam when machining mould water jacket by welding after machining or welding after extrusion. The mould water jacket by explosion forming has the characteristics of no weld machining and high manufacturing accuracy. Foreign stainless steel water jacket is made by explosive forming process.
Mold Level Detection Method:
The common methods of mold level detection are eddy current method, electromagnetic induction method, thermocouple method, infrared method, radioactive source method and so on. At present, the most [SCALE STEEL]widely used method is cobalt 60 or cesium 137 radioactive source detection method.
ASTM A423/ A423M standard contains three grades which are Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, determines minimum-wall-thickness, seamless and electric- resistance [SCALE STEEL]welded, low-alloy steel tubes for pressure containing parts such as economizers or other applications where corrosion resistance is important.
Seamless or Welded Pipes/ Tubes’ sizes and thicknesses under standard of ASTM A423/ A423M are 12.7 to 127mm( outside diameter) and 0.9 to 12.7mm( thickness). When seamless type, the producing process would be hot finished or cold finished. [SCALE STEEL]Heat treatment would be Normalized or other relevant heat treatments necessary to conform purchasing requirements.
Chemical Composition of A423 Grade 1, A423 Grade 2, A423 Grade 3(%):
Mn: 0.55 max
Si: 0.10 min
Ni: 0.20-0.70[SCALE STEEL]
P: 0.04 max
Mo: - 0.10 min
P: 0.020 max
Si: 0.55 max
Cu: 0.25-0.45[SCALE STEEL]
Ni: 0.50 max
Mo: 0.20 max
Tensile Strength(MPa): 415 min
Yield Strength(MPa): 255 min
Elongation(%): 25 min
Tensile Strength(MPa): 380
Yield Strength(MPa): 230
Elongation(%) : 35
Want more infos about ASTM A423Gr1, A423Gr2, A423Gr3 Seamless Pipe, Electric- Welded ERW Pipe, pls contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
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