Kovar alloy, also known as Kovar alloy, is an Fe-Ni-Cobalt alloy with a density of 8.36g/cm3;In the range of 20~500℃, the linear expansion[SCALE STEEL] coefficient is equal to that of glass and ceramics.
CHINA YB/T 5231-2005 4J29
AMERICA ASTM F15-2004 K94610
GERMANY DIN 17745:2002 NiCo 29 18
GRADE 4J29 K94610 1.3981
C ≤0.03 ≤0.04 ≤0.05
Si ≤0.30 ≤0.20 ≤0.30
Mn ≤0.50[SCALE STEEL] ≤0.50 ≤0.50
P ≤0.020 -- --
S ≤0.020 -- --
Ni 28.5~29.5 29.0* 28.0~30.0
Co 16.8~17.8 17.0* 16.0~18.0
Cr ≤0.20 ≤0.20 --
Cu ≤0.20 ≤0.20 --
Mo ≤0.20 ≤0.20 --
Al -- ≤0.10 --
Mg -- ≤0.10 --
Zr -- ≤0.10 --
Ti -- ≤0.10 --
Fe REST Bal.* Rest
*：Is a typical value, can be adjusted according to the requirements of thermal expansion coefficient。
AMERICA CARPENTER[SCALE STEEL] Kovar®
Special Metals Nilo® K
FRANCE Aperam Alloys Imphy
(Imphy Alloys) Dilver P1®
GERMANY VDM Metals Pernifer® 2918
JAPAN NIPPON YAKIN NAS 29CO
TYPICAL LINEAR EXPANSION COEFFICIENT（YB/T 5231-2005）
TEM AVERAGE COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION ā，10-6/℃
Most metals cannot be sealed with glass because their coefficient of thermal expansion is different from that of glass, so[SCALE STEEL] when the joint is cooled, the stress caused by the different expansion rates of glass and metal causes the joint to break.The nonlinear thermal expansion curves of Kovar alloys can usually be matched with glass, allowing the joints to withstand a wide temperature range.
Chemically, the Kovar alloy is bonded to the glass through intermediate oxide layers of nickel oxide and cobalt oxide;The bonding [SCALE STEEL]strength is highly dependent on the thickness of the oxide layer.The proportion of iron oxide is lower due to the reduction of cobalt, and the presence of cobalt makes the oxide layer more likely to melt and dissolve in the molten glass.Judging by color, gray, gray-blue or taupe indicate good seal;Metallic colors indicate a lack of oxides and black indicates an overoxidized alloy, both of which will result in weak bonding.
Kovar alloys allow for tight mechanical connections between two materials over a range of temperatures and are suitable for glass/ceramic-metal seals in scientific equipment, as well as conductors entering glass envelopes [SCALE STEEL]in electronic components such as vacuum tubes (valves), X-ray and microwave tubes, transistors, diode integrated circuits, etc.